AWIPEV-Logo
Projects 1998 - 2008
at the
AWIPEV Base: French-German Arctic Research Base
in Ny-Ålesund



Project
KOL 01
Radiation measurements in framework of the 
Surface Radiation Network - BSRN
Responsible 
scientist
Dr.Andreas Herber (until 2006)
Dr. Marion Maturilli (since 2007)
AWI
General 
information
The Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) is a cooperative network of surface radiation budget. Measurement stations operated by various national agencies and universities under the guiding principle set out by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP).  Presently about 15 stations have been established, one of them is Ny-Ålesund. The concept for a Baseline Surface Radiation Network has developed from the needs of both the climate change and satellite validation communities. The aims of the programme are the monitoring of long-term trends in radiation fluxes at the surface and the providing validation data for satellite determinations of the surface radiation budget. The BSRN station Ny-Ålesund was installed in summer 1992 and is regularly operating since August 1992.
Activities at the station since 1992
Continuous measurements 

2003
Replacement  of all sensors, new installation of the SCITEC–tracker, use of the new MW 21 
 
2004
Changing of radiation sensor package
Controlling of Met-tower sensor system

2005
Changing of radiation sensor package
Controlling of Met-tower sensor system
Exchange of datacable Blue House - BSRN station

2006
Changing of radiation sensor package
Controlling of Met-tower sensor system
Continuous measurements

2007
It will be changed the whole radiation sensor package and it will be controlled the Met-tower sensor system.
Additional is planned in May a special radio sounding campaign (100 sondes in 1 hour time step) to study the short-time variation of meteorological parameters and the influence of the surrounding hills.

2008
Annual check: In spring 2008, the radiation sensor package will be changed for calibration purposes. Further, the met-tower system will be controlled. Continuous measurements will be run throughout the year, comprising the daily radio soundings.

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Project
KOL 02a
Microwave observations of stratospheric trace species within the scope of the "Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change" (NDSC)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. M. Palm
Prof. J. Notholt

University of Bremen
General 
information
The aim of the microwave observations are the stratospheric measurements of ozon, chlorine monoxide, and water vapour above the Koldewey station.
Microwave radiometers are part of the standard instrumentation at primary NDSC stations and are due to their long-term stability and self calibrating technique especially useful for monitoring purposes. Altitude profiles are retrieved from the shape of the pressure broadened thermally induced emission line of the observed species.
The instruments for the observation of stratospheric ozone, chlorine monoxide and water vapour were developed at the University of Bremen, and upgrades and improvements are regularly carried out.
Project leader and responsible scientists are Prof. Dr. Justus Notholt and Dr. Harry Küllmann of the University of Bremen, respectivily. The instrument has been automated during recent years and ozone and water vapour observation on Spitsbergen are carried out year round. Chlorine monoxide is only observed in late winter and early spring, when enhanced concentrations in the lower stratosphere are to be expected. Routine operation and maintenance are taken care of by the station engineer. Data analysis is done at the University of Bremen.
Activities at the station 1993
First observation of stratospheric ozone on campaign basis. 
 
1994
Permanent installation of the ozone radiometer and start of the continuous observations of stratospheric ozone. 
 
1995
Continuous observations of stratospheric ozone and first observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide. 
 
1996
Permanent installation of the chlorine monoxide radiometer and continuous observations of stratospheric ozone. 

1997
Continuous observations of stratospheric ozone and spring observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide. Intercomparison campaign of ClO-radiometers in co-operation with State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA, Communications Research Laboratory, Tokio, Japan, and the University of Karlsruhe, Germany. 
 
1998
Continuous observations of stratospheric ozone and spring observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide. 
 
1999
Permanent installation of the water vapour radiometer and continuous observations of stratospheric ozone, spring observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide and continuous observations stratospheric water vapour. 
 
2000/2001/2002
Routine observations of stratospheric ozone and water vapour, and spring observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide.

2003
Adaptation of the ClO-radiometer to a supraconducting receiver for improvement of the systems sensivity 
 
2004
Overhaul of  the ClO radiometer and repair of the AOS spectrometer. Restart and successful operation of the threefold radiometer. Preparation and tests of a narrow band filter bank.

2005
Implementation of an additional high resolution filter bank spectrometer to extend the altitude range for ozone into the mesosphere.

2006
The overall aim is to study the variability of O3 and H2O in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Both trace gases are relatively short lived at these altitudes, caused by the solar radiation and cosmic events. The magnetic fields lines enter the earth near the poles, therfore extraterrestrial particles have a much more pronounced influence near the poles compared to the equator. The observations at the Koldewey station will be compared with similar observations near the equator, in Venezuela.

2007
The O3 and H2O observations are performed permanently automatically yearround. The observations need to be calibrated by a cold and warm blackbody. The cold blackbody requires liquid nitrogen, which is filled in by the NDACC engineer.

2008
In 2008 the analysis and reanalysis of water vapour is the major topic. The observations at the AWIPEV station will be compared with comparable observations near the equator, in Venezuela.

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Project
KOL 02b
Stratospheric observations with LIDAR technique (NDSC)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
Vertical profiles of ozone concentration, aerosol backscatter coefficients, and temperature are measured in the stratosphere by the stratospheric multi wavelength LIDAR instrument, which is installed permanently at the atmospheric observatory of the joint French-German Platform in Ny-Ålesund.
The instrument is part of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). It consists of two lasers, a XeCl-Excimer laser for UV-wavelengths and a Nd:YAG-laser for near IR- and visible wavelengths, a 60 cm telescopes  and a detection system with six channels.  
Ozone profiles are obtained by the DIAL method using the wavelengths at 308 and 353 nm. Aerosol data is recorded at two wavelengths (353 nm, 532 nm) with depolarization measurements at 532 nm. In addition the vibrational N2-Raman scattered light at 608 nm is recorded. 
This allows to determine the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients independently from each other. 
As lidar measurements require clear skies and a low background light level, the observations are concentrated on the winter months from November through March. The most prominent feature is the regular observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). PSCs are known to be a necessary prerequisite for the strong polar ozone loss, which is observed in the Arctic (and above Spitsbergen). The PSC data set accumulated during the last years allows the characterization of the various types of PSCs and how they form and develop. 
The 353 and 532 nm channels are also used for temperature retrievals in the altitude range above the aerosol layer up to 50 km.
Activities at 
the station
Winter 1997/1998
Ozone lidar measurements have been validated during winter 1997/98 within a validation campaign (NAOMI-98) with the NDSC mobile ozone lidar from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A very good aggreement between the lidar instruements is found, as well as with the ozone sondes and the microwave radiometer. The different instruments have quite different altitude ranges and resolutions, as well as temporal coverage, which complicated the intercomparison and shows, that all of them are needed to completely monitor the stratospheric ozone layer. 
 
Winter 1998/1999
routine measurements 
 
Winter 1999/2000
Routine measurements and SOLVE/THESEO-2000 (for details see KOP 53) 
 
Winter 2000/2001
routine measurements 
 
Winter 2001/2002
Routine measurements and validation campaign for SAGE III (Sept./Oct. 01), SCIAMACHY and CHAMP, see KOP 66 and KOP 67
 
Winter 2002/2003
In the winters 2002/03 and 2003/04 (november – march) the longterm-measurements shall be continued. A main topic will be the evidence of large PSC-particles (so called NAT rocks), wich may contribute remarkably to the denitrification of the stratosphere in the wintertime. Up to now they were found only indirectly by lidar-measurements. Furthermore are planned contributions to the SOLVE-2 campaign (validation for SAGE III) an for validation of SCIAMACHY. Ordinary tasks are: 
- preparation of the lidar-system (adjustment, maintanance) 
- measurements during the polar night from october until march 
 
Winter 2004/2005
From November until March different scientists will perform the measurements, in addition to some measurements to be taken by the station engineer. Within the EU-project SCOUT regular observations of the Arctic stratosphere are planned for winter 2004/05. In addition, a US campaign for observations of the ozone layer for validation of satellite instruments is under discussion for the same winter. We will use the stratospheric lidar system in order to make reference measurements and science contributions to these campaigns.

Winter 2005/2006
During Sept./Oct. one engineer from Impres GmbH shall be at Koldewey-Station to prepare the instrument for the winter measurements. This includes maintenance of the lasers and fine adjustments of the detection system. From November until March different scientists will perform the measurements, in addition to some measurements to be taken by the station engineer. Within the EU-project SCOUT regular observations of the Arctic stratosphere are planned for winter 2005/06.

Winter 2006/2007

In spring 2006 the current laser system for the Koldewey lidars shall be replaced by a new one, which will deliver higher output, have better remote control options, and better maintenance features. The replacement is done together with the tropospheric lidar activities (KOL 09), which use the same laser.

 For the winter season 2006/07 (November to March) no dedicated campaign is planned. Instead routine observations of the stratospheric parameters ozone, aerosol content, and temperature is foreseen.

2008
During the winter season 2008/09 (November to March) campaign activity is dedicated to IPY contributions, as well as to the EU project GEOMON. This includes routine observations of the stratospheric parameters ozone, aerosol content, and temperature. Additionally, measurement times shall be adjusted to overpasses of the CALIPSO satellite, which will investigate by lidar tropo- and stratospheric aerosol content.
During fall one engineer from Impres GmbH shall be at the observatory to prepare the instrument for the winter measurements. This includes maintenance of the lasers and fine adjustments of the detection system. Also during that time modifications of the receiver will be prepared or implemented, depending on the further development of the combination of tropo- and stratospheric lidar detectors (see KOL 09).
Measurements with the UV-laser system (ozone profiles) shall also allow to detect the mesospheric OH layer by resonance fluorescence. Regular and dedicated measurements shall be performed, which will require exact recording of the laser wavelength by a spectrometer on site and the "high altitude" mode of operation.

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Project
KOL 02c
Trace gas measurements by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (NDSC)
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Justus Notholt
Dr. M. Palm
University of Bremen
General 
information
The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) has been established as a powerful tool for measurements of atmospheric trace gases. Using the sun or moon as light source, between 20-30 trace gases of the tropo- and stratosphere can be detected by their absorption features. The analysis of the spectra allow to retrieve the total zenith columns of the trace gases. For a few trace gases the pressure broadening of the lines allow to get additionally some informations on the vertical concentration profiles. Some important trace gases cannot be detected in the IR but in the UV/VIS. This makes it useful to record the whole spectral region from the IR from about 700/cm (14 µm) to the UV at 33000/cm (300 nm).
Activities at the station since 1992
routine observations of atmospheric trace gases 
 
2001
The routine observations are continued. Furthermore, the measurements within the NDSC are used for the project SAMMOA- and SCIAMACHY-Validation. 
 
2002
The routine observations are continued. Furthermore, the measurements within the NDSC are used for the project SAMMOA-, SOGE- and SCIAMACHY-Validation. 
 
2003
In 2003 it is planned to study the long-term trend of a few tropospheric trace gases, like CO, HCN or C2H6. 
 
2004
The routine observations are continued. Ground-based FTIR observations are performed as part of the long-term observations within the NDSC.

2005
The routine observations are continued. Ground-based FTIR observations are performed as part of the long-term observations within the NDSC.

2007
The routine observations are continued. Ground-based FTIR observations are performed as part of the long-term observations within the NDACC.

2008
The overall aim is to follow the long-term evolution of the stratospheric trace gases. Throughout the last years the focus of the NDACC has changed and now includes tropospheric trace gases. In 2008 we will concentrate on the profile retrieval of tropospheric trace gases, like HCN and CH2O. In addition the analysis of water vapour from the FTIR-measurements will be performed.

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Project
KOL 03
Effects of atmospheric aerosol on climate, 
measured by sun and star photometer
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
In recent years, much attention has been directed towards understandig the effects of aerosols on a variety of processes in the earth atmosphere. Aerosols play an integral role in limiting visibility, they serve as nuclei for the formation of fog and cloud droplets, they affect the earth radiative budget, and thus climate, both directly and indirectly, and they inhibit the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. The Arctic aerosols, especially Arctic Haze and tropospheric ice crystals possible have important climatic and ecological and global change implications. 
Since 1991 Sun photometer observations of the polar atmopheric aerosol have been  performed at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Ålesund, Spitzbergen. In order to complete the coverage and quality of measurements during the polar night a high sensitive Star photometer is installed since January 1996. Both measurements, the daylight Sun photometer measurements and night Star photometer measurements will be continued.
Activities at the station since 1991
Regular photometer observations (ABAS, SP2H) 
 
since 1993
Fully automated Sun photometer measurements 
 
since 1995
Moon measurements during polar night 
 
since 1996
Star photometer measurements during the polar night 
 
2003
no measurements in the winter 2002/03 because of general reconstruction of the system in germany 
replacement of the radom in summer 2003 
beginning of automatic measurements from december 2003 
 
2004
With beginning of the polar night the re-installation and adjustment of the star photometer is needed. Additional training is planned and depends from the weather conditions the calibration of the star Alpha Lyra (Veiga).

2005
Re-installation starphotometer
Calibration of Alpha Lyra
Re-installation sunphotometer

2006
Re-installation starphotometer
Calibration of Alpha Lyra
Re-installation sunphotometer

2007
Re-installation starphotometer
Calibration of Alpha Lyra
Re-installation sunphotometer

2008
The measurements within the photometer measurements include:

  • Measurements with the full-automatic sun photometer SP1A
  • Measurements with the star photometer during polar night
Project aim:
  • Study of the long-term variation of Arctic aerosol
  • Study of the seasonal variation of tropospheric aerosol
  • Polar night observation of Arctic aerosol variation
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Project
KOL 04
Seismological "Very Broad Band" Station (VBB-Station)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Alfons Eckstaller
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The new seismological broad band station KBS at Ny-Ålesund replaces a former WWSSN station operated by the Institute for Solid Earth Physics of the University of Bergen. Both instrumentation and data acquisition of the old station were inadequate to meet all the demands for highest data quality for today's modern seismological research. The high technical standard of the new stations instrumentation now fulfils all the requirements of a modern broad band station. Therefore this station is integrated into the international Global Seismological Network, GSN, for monitoring the world-wide seismic activity. Special interests focus on regional seismicity at and around Svalbard itself and along the ridges in the arctic ocean. KBS is an open station, e.g., any interested scientist or international organization os allowed to retrieve data of special interest. Data are routinely processed and stored at the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Copies are also available at the Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ). 
Activities at the station since 1994
Continuous measurements 
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Project
KOL 05
LONG-TERM MEASUREMENTS OF UV-A AND UV-B SOLAR RADIATION WITH AN ARRAY-SPECTRORADIOMETER
(LOTUS project)
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. O. Schrems 
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
For the LOTUS project  long-term measurements of spectral resolved UV-B and UV-A irradiation (wavelength range of the instrument 280 to 400 nm) at the NDSC-Station in Ny-Ålesund will be carried out. For this purpose a multichannel UV spectroradiometer  which was developed at AWI will be used. One of the important objectives  of these UV measurements is the observation of long-term trends in UV-irradiance. The Arctic belongs to the most interesting geographical areas for such studies due to the strong ozone depletion events observed in this region. A direct effect of ozone depletion is the increasing UV-B radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. However, the scattering of UV-B radiation by aerosols and clouds plays also an important and complex role. A change in UV climate may possibly be detrimental to the biosphere, e.g. to marine life in the upper layers of the Sea or to terrestrial vegetation. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained data will be supported by measurements of other NDSC instruments which are operated at Ny-Ålesund.  A full acceptance of the UV-spectroradiometer as NDSC instrument is anticipated after participation in an international intercomparison campaign.
Activities at the station since 1996
Continuous measurements of UV-B radiation (280-320nm) 
 
since 1998
Additional measurements of UV-A radiation (320-400nm) 
 
1999-2001
Annual exchange of spectrometer 
 
2002
Annual exchange of spectrometer, establishment of a gauge to calibrate the spectrometer at the station to reduce return to Bremerhaven for service 
 
2003
Annual exchange of the spectrometer at the end of Feb. 03. Installation and test of a mobile calibration unit, which will allow to test the UV spectrometer on site, thereby eliminating the expensive annual transport to Bremerhaven and back. Installation by isiTEC

In addition the under water UVB instrument will be deployed during May - August 2003 in connection with the KOL06 project. 
Both measurements combined will allow to determine the optical properties of the marine water column. 
 
2004
Calibration of the spectroradiometer on the NDSC building 
Installation of the underwater UV spectroradiometer 
Installation of the sediment trap for project KOP 51

2005
Installation and calibration of the spectroradiometer on the NDSC building 

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Project
KOL 06
Biology of Arctic macroalgae
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Christian Wiencke
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Our studies focus both on basic research as well as on the effects of enhanced UV radiation and increasing temperatures on seaweeds. The basic research concen­trates on the seasonal fertility of kelps and kelp-like seaweeds as well as on the protection of kelp-stands by another brown alga, which repels sea urchins and consequently prevents kelp dis­appearance by sea urchin grazing. As spores and other early life stages of seaweeds are most sus­ceptible to environmental perturbations, we study the general seasonal UV and temperature sus­ceptibility of brown algal spores, the interactive effects of UVR and temperature on the photo­synthetic and accessory pigments of spores from different brown and green macroalgae. Finally, we determine the presence and the possible induction of UV absorbing brown algal phlorotannins in spores by analytical chemistry and by gene expression studies.
Activities at the station 1991
Collections of macroalgae from the Kongsfjord in the area of Ny Ålesund and Prins Heinrichøya and inoculation of unialgal cultures for subsequent long term-experiments in the home laboratory Bremerhaven. Studies on the formation of volatile organohalogenic compounds (e. g. bromoform) as potential sources of halogen radicals in the atmosphere by marine macroalgae. 
 
1995
Studies on the photoinhibition and photodamage of marine macroalgae from the area of Ny Ålesund by high (white) light stress and UV radiation. Measurement of the underwater radiation regime (photosynthetically active radiation, UVA- and UVB radiation). 
 
1996
Analysis of structure and distribution of sublittoral benthic communities on hard bottom in the euphotic zone of the Kongsfjord in the Ny-Ålesund area and on Blømstrand (Hansneset and London). Collections of macroalgae and inoculation of unialgal cultures for subsequent long term-experiments in Bremerhaven. Measurement of the radiation- (photosynthetically active radiation, UVA- and UVB radiation), temperature and salinity regime in the Kongsfjord. Studies on the photoinhibition and photodamage of marine macroalgae. Determination of the contents of UV-screening compounds in the different macroalgal species from the Kongsfjord. 
 
1997
Collection of macroalgae from different water depths and determination of the reaction of the photosynthetic apparatus upon expusure to UV radiation. UV exclusion experiments with various macroalgal species from different water depths and determination of the content of UV sunscreen pigments. 
 
1998
Measurement of the radiation-(photosynthetically active radiation, UVA- and UVB radiation), temperature and salinity regime in the Kongsfjord. Acclimation of macroalgal physiology to under-ice conditions and to the conditions after sea-ice-break up, in particular with respect to the photosynthetic apparatus, the content of sunscreen pigments and of antioxidant enzymes as well as of antioxidative substances. Studies on the effect of UV radiation on the unicellular propagation units of brown algae, especially on the germination and on DNA damage. 
 
1999
Conduction of UV exclusion and UV transplantation experiments with marine macroalgae from the Kongsfjord and the effect of the changed radiation conditions on the physiology, especially on the photosynthetic apparatus, the formation of sunscreen pigments and of antioxidant enzymes as well as of antioxidative substances. 
 
2000
Studies on the effect of UV radiation on different developmental stages of marine macroalgae. Determination of the balance between damaging effects of UV radiation (mainly on photosynthesis and DNA) and protection and repair mechanisms (UV sunscreen pigments, antioxidants, antioxidant enzymes) by UV exclusion and UV transplantation experiments. 
 
2001
Studies on the balance between damaging effects of UV radiation (mainly on photosynthesis and DNA) and protection and repair mechanisms (UV sunscreen pigments, DNA repair) by UV exclusion and UV transplantation experiments. Determination of growth as integrative parameter of the various effects of UV radiation on the physiological level. 
 
2002
Measurement of photosynthetically active radiation, UVA- and UVB radiation in the 
Kongsfjord. Sampling of macroalgae by research divers for laboratory experiments. Isolation of ecologically important macroalgae and epiphytic microalgae. Freeze preservation and freeze drying of macroalgal samples for studies in the home laboratory. Studies on the interaction between the effects of UVradiation, elevated temperatures and enhanced CO2 levels on the physiology of macroalgae. Studies on the effect of UV radiation on the unicellular propagation units of brown algae, especially on the germination and on DNA damage. 
 
2003
The effects of enhanced ultraviolet radiation on the gene expression is studied in the ecological important marine brown macroalga Laminaria saccharina and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Different developmental stages of these algae will be exposed to UV-radiation of various intensities and spectral properties in the lab as well as in the field. Therefore the algae will be exposed to artificial UV-radiation in trays covered with different spectral filters in the Nansen lab. Additionally the plants will be exposed to natural light conditions in the field with variations in water depth, spectral ranges and the duration of exposition. After the exposure parts of the algae will be subjected to an RNA-extraction directly. The other part of the plant material will be frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for RNA-extraction in the laboratory in Germany. In addition several other biochemical parameters such as reactive oxygen content, localization of reactive oxygen species and concentrations of antioxidative substances will be measured in the laboratory. 
Moreover a cooperation with Maren Lieneweg is planned to correlate changes in gene expression with the formation of secondary metabolites at various light conditions in different macroalgal species. Therefore it is necessary to expose the chosen species to well characterized light conditions and to extract RNA as well as secondary metabolites from the same plant material. 
 
2004
UV effects on of marine macroalgae: Succession and physiology of early life stages: 
The succession of benthic primary producers in the upper sublittoral will be investigated along the shoreline of Kongsfjorden. The aim of the project is the estimation of early, mid- and long-term effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on the succession of benthic macroalgae communities. 
The influence of natural UVR on community dynamics and biodiversity of shallow marine benthic systems will be studied by succession experiments under four different light regimes (PAR, PAR+UVA, PAR+UVA+UVB, full sunlight). 

UV effects on of marine macroalgae: gene expression and growth: 
The effect of enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gene expression is studied in different macroalgal species, the two brown algae Laminaria saccharina and Laminaria digitata and the green algae Monostroma arcticum and Acrosiphonia arcta. These algae are ecologically important and abundant species in the Kongsfjorden ecosystem and grow in depths that are subjected to biologically relevant doses of UV-radiation. Therefore the algae will be exposed to the ambient light climate in UV-transparent plexiglas-tubes and growth measurements will be carried out by the use of specially designed growth chambers in-situ 

UV effects on marine macroalgae: Effects on brown algal spores: 
Collection of fertile specimen of brown algae 
Exposure of released spores in the laboratory 
Measurement of the absorption of UV radiation by the released spores before and after UV exposure 
Exposure of spores at different water depths in the field.

2005
A.     Seasonal monitoring of macroalgal physiological performance
Young sporophytes of the key species Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, L. saccharina, L. solidungula, and Saccorhiza dermatodea will be collected under ice by SCUBA divers. In laboratory experiments their acclimation potential to increased irradiance and their sensitivity to UV-radiation will be studied through exposure to different artificial light regimes (with and without UV-radiation). Photosynthetic performance will be measured by PAM-fluorometry. UV-absorbing phlorotannin contents will be studied by fluorescence microscopy and samples will be fixed for electron microscopic analysis. Samples for pigment, protein and DNA analy-ses will be conserved and will be taken to the home lab. After the break-up of sea ice the physiological changes after exposure to natural solar radiation will be monitored over four weeks measuring the same parameters. An additional monitoring over a period of four weeks will be performed at the end of the summer under conditions of decreasing daylength. The combination of both, field monitoring and lab studies, will provide a broad view inside physiological acclimation processes.
Furthermore, transplantation experiments will be carried out to study the role of phlorotannins and xanthophylls as possible UV-protecting substances in more detail. For this purpose selected species will be collected by SCUBA divers in deep water and transferred to shallow water to expose them in transparent tubes to different light conditions (with/without UV-radiation). Moreover the induction of phlorotannins as response to mechanical wounding simulating a herbivore attack will be studied.

B.    Ecophysiology of marine macroalgae: acclimation to abiotic stress
In order to study the combined effects of the two environmental factors radiation and tem-perature on macroalgal photosynthesis we will set-up one mesocosm-field experiment under natural radiation conditions and various lab- experiments under defined conditions. Algal material will be collected by SCUBA divers from different depths and will then be exposed in three temperature controlled tanks (190 x 80 x 15 cm each ) supplied with running seawater and adjusted to (1.) ambient fjord temperature (FT), (2.) +8°C above FT, (3.) +15°C FT. The temperature in each mesocosm will be adjusted by cryostates. From the ecological point of view +15°C FT treatment is irrelevant to the situation at Kongsfjorden, however, strongly elevated temperatures will allow to study the physiological mechanisms of acclimation to increased temperatures. Algal material in the pools will be shielded with different filter foils (295nm, 320nm, 400nm cut-off), in order to create radiation treatments with/without UV-radiation. For each treatment, we will study in situ photosynthetic performance of algae by applying PAM chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. In laboratory experiments, algal material will be exposed to artificial UV-radiation at defined temperatures. Daylight and results will be measured in terms of survival and length of Fucus juveniles, community composition and photosynthetic activity of the algal community

2007
A.    Abiotic and biotic interactive effects on brown and green algal spores
Stratospheric ozone depletion leads to enhanced UV radiation at the earth’s surface and in the water. Algal spores are the stages most susceptible to a variety of stresses, in particular UV radiation and temperature. Their UV susceptibility determines the depth zonation of the adult plants. In the first part of our study we will investigate the damage to different components of the photosynthetic machinery of various brown and green algae from different water depths under different radiation and temperature regimes. In particular, we will investigate the fate of the D1 protein parallel to the down regulation of photosynthesis, carboxylation and regeneration of Ribulose biphosphate in the Calvin cycle. Growth rates (as a function of germination capacity) of green macroalgal spores and gametes will also be measured using growth fluorometry. On the other hand damage can be prevented by the formation of UV absorbing substances. In this respect brown algal phlorotannins were invoked to protect the spores from damage. In green algae flavonoids may have a similar role. The formation of these substances under different UV and temperature regimes are studied as well and will be complemented by an investigation of the fine structural changes during exposure. The results of these studies will further enhance our understanding on the physiology and ultrastructure of spores and will explain the different UV and temperature susceptibility of the various species, which finally determines the seaweed zonation pattern in Kongsfjorden.
    In the second part of our study we will investigate the effect of enhanced UVB radiation on the germination pattern of brown algal spores by use of a sunshine simulator. So far, the radiation regime used in our laboratory experiments is highly artificial. Photosynthetically active radiation is always too low and UVB radiation is always too high compared to natural sunlight. A newly developed sunshine simulator allows to simulate the present solar radiation regime and radiation regimes occurring under scenarios of stratospheric ozone depletion. The use of the sunshine simulator will allow for the first time to directly relate the atmospheric conditions to biological processes, a great step forward.
    Beside abiotic factors recruitment of seaweeds depends also on biotic factors e. g. on interspecific competition for space. In this respect we plan for the first time investigations on the interactive effects between spores of various species exposed to different temperature and UV radiation regimes. The obtained results will allow to draw conclusions on the impact of global climate changes on seaweed species composition.

B. To be or not to be: On the fate of Alaria esculenta refuges in urchin barrens at Kongsfjordneset

Kelp beds have strong ecological implications at temperate and polar rocky shores, where they serve as feed and/or habitat for many macroalgae and animals. The Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) is able to consume and thereby destroy extensive kelp beds. The destructive urchin grazing depends on the urchin density, resulting in two stable community states. When urchin densities are low, kelp beds prevail, but under high urchin density, kelp beds change into encrusting red algal dominated ‘urchin barrens’. Interestingly, small (<1000 m²) kelp patches permanently exist in ‘urchin barrens’, which may serve as export areas for kelp and other algal propagules and, thus, redevelopment of kelp beds at times when urchins are removed from barrens, e.g. as a result of catastrophic parasitic infestations. The persistence of kelp is linked to the refuge surrounding wall-like presence of the brown algae Desmarestia viridis, which repels urchins and, thus, demonstrates an example of associative defence of macroalgae against urchin grazing.

2008
The seasonal fertility of Alaria esculenta, Saccorhiza dermatodea, Laminaria saccharina and L. digitata will be studied between July and September. In particular, we focus on the seasonal ger­mination capacity and the seasonal activity variation of the photosynthetic apparatus.

The fate of Alaria esculenta refuges in urchin barrens at Kongsfjordneset will be studied further by monitoring the seasonal sea urchin density, the abundance of Desmarestia viridis, which repels sea urchins and by analysing macrobenthic community structure inside and outside the Alaria refuges (research period July).

To complement the effects of single and multi-stress factors on physiological and biochemical responses of the early life stages of macroalgae (i.e. photosynthesis, germination, DNA damage and repair), the interactive effects of UVR and temperature will be studied for the first time on the photosynthetic and accessory pigments of spores from different species of brown and green macroalgae. In this respect carotenoids will be studied, which have protective functions either as direct quenchers of reactive oxygen species or play a role in the thermal dissipation of excess energy (research period July).

The content and chemical composition of UV absorbing phlorotannins will be studied in zoo­spores of A. esculenta, Saccorhiza latissima, Laminaria digitata, L. solidungula and Saccorhiza dermatodea after exposure to different UVradiation and temperature conditions. Further on a cDNA library of zoospores and sporophytes of these species will be established which will allow to study the effect of UV radiation and temperature changes on gene expression through microar­ray analysis (research period July)

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Project
KOL 07
Snow algae in Svalbard
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Günter Fuhr
Humboldt-University of Berlin
General 
information
This project (of Humboldt University of Berlin) is a long-study of the ecology and physiology of Arctic snow algae in Ny Ålesund region (Krossfjorden, Blomstrandhalvøya and Prins Karls-Forland). The main objectives are 
  • characterision of snow algae fields and probe collections 
  • physiological characterision of single algae cells at different stages of development (e.g. by dielectric single cell spectroscopy, immuno-fluroescence microscopy and element analysis), 
  • cultivation in home laboratories. 
Activities at the station 1995-2000
Mapping of coloured snow induced by snow algae (Chlamydomonas spp. and Chloromonas spp.) during the summer at about 60 localities in the coastal region of Northwest-Spitsbergen. 
 
2002
Mapping of snow algae fields; collecting algae samples to isolate single clones for genetic examination and protein analysis; installation of a long-term data logger to record environmental parameters
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Project
KOL 08
Determination of Heavy Metals in Aerosols and Deposition Samples
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Michael Kriews
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Total deposition sampling is performed at Ny-Ålesund to study atmospheric fluxes of heavy metals to the Arctic. In addition wet only deposition sampling is carried out with an automatic precipitation sampler. The samples are analysed at the home laboratory for tracer elements for seaspray components, earthcrust weathered material and anthropogenic elements by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One aim of our study is to distinguish element distribution between the dissolved and particulate phase. In addition to the element analyses the concentration of anions is determined by ionchromatography. In 1996 an automatically operating aerosol sampler was installed, which is combined with the automatic precipitation sampler to study element washout from aerosol particles via rain and snow.
Activities at the station since 1993
continous deposition measurements 
additionally  measurements with high frequency during measurement campaigns

2007
Participating in the ASTAR 2007(KOP109) campaign with ground based aerosol and deposition sampling

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Project
KOL 09
Investigations of tropospheric aerosols by lidar
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber and Dr. Christoph Ritter
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
A tropospheric lidar system with a Nd:YAG-Laser was installed at the Koldewey-Station in 1998. It operates at a laser wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm with detection at 532 nm polarised and depolarised, and at Raman wavelengths like 607nm (nitrogen)and 407 (water vapour). It records profiles of aerosol content, aerosol depolarisation and aerosol extinction from the ground up to the tropopause level during polar night. The main goal of the investigations is to determine the climate impact of arctic aerosol. Analysis of the climate impact will be performed by a high resolution regional model run at the Alfred Wegener Institute (HIRHAM). 
The reconstruction of the detection system in November 1999 extends the capabilities of the Lidar to daylight measurements; also, the range of detection wavelengths is extended. The new system is capable to obtain water vapour profiles of the troposphere. Water vapour profiles are crucial for the understanding of the formation of aerosols. The water vapour profiles are also used for the validation of profiles measured by the CHAMP satellite from 2001 onwards.
Activities at the station 1999
Measurements during January, March. 
November: Extension of laser operation to wavelengths 532 and 1064 nm. Installation of a new detection system which allows detection of wavelengths 532nm polarised and depolarised, 1064nm, 607nm (nitrogen raman), 660nm (water raman) with narrow bandwidth filters for daylight detection. 
Succesful measurements with the new system in November and December, including the Raman water vapour retrieval.

2000
February - April: succesful day and night measurements for ASTAR2000 campaign.

2001
Routine observations. 
Preparation of further extensions of the system (laser operation at 355nm, detection of UV raman wavelengths of water vapour and nitrogen). 
Start of the validation of CHAMP water vapour profiles.

2002
Routine observations 
Measurements in spring to investigate Arctic Haze together with the project KOL 03 and the German-Japanese aeroplane campagne AAMP-2002 (KOP 71) 
Depending on start validation of SAGE III and ENVISAT 
Validation of CHAMP water vapour profiles

2003
Continuous measurements of water vapor profiles. No special campaigns for 2003. More measurements in the spring time in order to decover arctic haze events.

2004
The major task for the coming year is the contribution to the ASTAR 2004 campaign in May/June 2004. During all the other monthes of the year, KARL - the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL) - shall be operated on a quasi-regular basis by the station engineer in order to obtain the annual distribution of Arctic tropospheric aerosols. It is planned to install required hardware in order to automate the operation of the lidar system.

2005
The major task for the coming year is the contribution to the SvalEx 2005 campaign in April 2005 (see also KOP 97). During all the other months of the year, KARL shall be operated on a quasi-regular basis by the station engineer in order to obtain the annual distribution of Arctic tropospheric aerosols and water vapour content.


2006
The KARL is to be mainly operated in the semi-automated fashion by the station engineer. During the Photometer Intercomparison campaign, intensified KARL measurements shall be performed by additional personnel. During April 2006 the laser shall be replaced by a new system by Impres GmbH.

2007
The KARL is to be mainly operated in the semi-automated fashion by the station
engineer. During the ASTAR 2007(KOP109) campaign, intensified KARL measurements shall
be performed by additional personnel.

2008
Continuing the permanent aerosol measurements of AWI Potsdam
Collection of a data base for projects as CLIF, DANIELA
Derivation of microphysical properties of aerosol
Tests for a reduced overlap-height of the current KARL set-up for cloud measurements
Preparations for intended modification of KARL
Joint measurements with star-photometer

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Project
KOL 10
DOAS measurements of atmospheric trace gases (NDSC)
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. John P. Burrows
University of Bremen
General 
information
Quasi-continuous observation of several atmospheric species are performed by measuring the absorption of visible and near ultraviolet sunlight scattered from the sky or in direct moonlight. Column abundance of molecules such as ozone, NO2, OClO, NO3, BrO, HCHO and IO are derived by means of a Differential Optical Absorption (DOAS) algorithm and a radiative transfer model. With the help of a multi-axis telescope that is also able to collect light close to the horizon and was installed in 1999 and upgraded in 2002 it is also possible to obtain profiles of absorbers under clear sky conditions. These activities are part of calibration and validation studies of different satellite experiments (GOME, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY). Since 1999 the instrument is part of the Network of the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC).  
The instrument has been installed in 1995 as the second UV/vis instrument from the Institute of Environmental Physics. One similar setup in Bremen is continuously running with the exception of short maintenance breaks since 1993. Recently instruments have been set up in Nairobi, Kenya (July 2002) and Summit, Greenland (July 2003) and Merida, Venezuela (April 2004).
The personnel involved in this project are Andreas Richter (group leader), Folkard Wittrock (field leader and contact person) and Hilke Oetjen (PhD-student).
More information about the DOAS group is available 
under www.doas-bremen.de.
Activities at the station since 1995
Setup of the main instrument in February 1995, since then contious measurements of zenith sky spectra with the exception of the polar night season from October 20 to February 15 each year. 
 
1996
Optimization of the calibration system. 
 
1997
In January and February measurements of direct moonlight with two spectrometer to complement the data set into the polar night. 
 
1998
Again measurements of direct moonlight with a modified setup. In April first 
test of a new setup, which enables scattered light close to horizon to be 
used as a second light source (off-axis measurements). This improves the
signal/noise ratio for tropospheric absorbers significantly. 
 
1999
In spring 1999 the improvements tested in April 1998 have been implemented to the setup. These technical improvements automate off-axis measurements to derive tropospheric abundances of BrO, NO2 and possibly IO and OClO. Using the off-axis and zenith observations it is possible to differentiate the stratospheric and tropospheric abundances of the observed trace gases in the atmosphere. This is especially for IO important, which was first measured by this instrument, as there is a debate in the scientific community, about the magnitude of its stratospheric column. 
 
2000
Installation of a new detector system, which further improves the signal/noise ratio. 
 
2001
instrumentation service, contributions to the validation of SAGE III and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT 
 
2002
Replacement of the existent detector to improve the signal to noise ratio and reconstruction of the hole system (telescope, calibration unit, computer) to reduce necessary service. 
Installation of a second detector unit to enhance the measuring range and therefore data quality. 
 
2003
The existing instrument that operates in the uv spectral range will be complemented by a spectrometer operating in the visible wavelength region. Therefor the spectrometer from the old setup will be equipped with a CCD. Both spectrometers will be connected to the same entrance optics and will also be operated by the same computer. 

2004
Optimization of the calibration system.

2005
Maintenance work on the spectrometers.

2007
Maintenance work on the calibration unit and on the spectrometer heating. Some software improvement.

2008
Maintenance of detector and control units.

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Project
KOL 11
Heat and mass transfer in the active layer
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Julia Boike
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
The active layer, the annually freezing and thawing upper ground in permafrost areas, is of pivotal importance. The moisture and heat transfer characteristics of this layer also determine the boundary layer interactions of the underlying permafrost and the atmosphere and are therefore important parameters input for geothermal or climate modeling. Finally, changes in the characteristics of the permafrost and permafrost related processes may be used as indicators of global ecological change provided the system permafrost-active layer-atmosphere is understood sufficiently well. 
The dynamics of permafrost soils is measured with high accuracy and high temporal resolution at our two sites close to Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Using these continuous data we quantify energy balance components and deduce heat transfer processes such as conductive heat flux, generation of heat from phase transitions, and migration of water vapor.
Activities at the station 1997
Installation of automatic soil temperature and moisture station in a designated research area outside Ny-Ålesund (August). 
 
1998
Snow physical measurements (May); installation of second automatic soil temperature and moisture station in the Bayelva catchment, approx. 3 km W of Ny-Ålesund (August). 
 
1999
Maintenance of automatic stations (July). 
 
2000
Maintenance of automatic stations and Ground Penetrating Radar measurements (April). 
 
2001
Maintenance of automatic stations (May and Sept.). 
 
2002
Maintenance of automatic stations and connection of the first station (see 1997) to the data network of the Koldewey Station 
 
2003
Maintenance of automatic stations (May and Sept.). 
 
2004
Maintenance of automatic stations (August and Sept.).

2005
Maintenance of automatic stations (August and Sept.).

2006
The main objective is to elucidate the two major cycles (water and heat) in the complex Arctic landscape system. The future goal is to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of snow and/or soil moisture together with sensible and latent heat fluxes at the ground surface at the plot and watershed scale using ground based and aerial measurements (in cooperation with atmospheric measurements at Koldewey). Already established instrumentation on soil and snow’s thermal and hydrologic dynamics will be augmented with spatially distributed measurements (automated and manual) at characteristic sites (for example, TDR and temperature arrays, snow physical measurements). In addition, if funding permits, one micrometeorological eddy covariance tower will be set up close to the Bayleva site to assess water and energy fluxes during the snow accumulation period in September-October.

2007
In spring 2007 we plan to install a new 3m tripod close to the Bayelva site (50-100m distance) for the eddy-covariance measurement with sensors for CO2, H2O, heat and momentum. The power supply will be carried out by a new wind generator and solar panels which will be inside the Bayelva fence. Data will be sent via radio and
additionally stored on a datalogger.
To observe the snow melting process in may/june two people of the group will be in Ny-Ålesund for two weeks. The PhD student of our group will work for 6-8 weeks in july/august with the eddycovariance measurement and additional special distributed data collection. In addition we will maintain the two automatic soil and climate stations in this time.
During all these times we will attempt to collect air pictures via ballon, kite or parasail (drone). These measurements will exclusively carried out in the Bayelva catchment.

2008
The following work is planned for the Bayelva catchment:

  • Installation of a new radio transfer system so that data can be transferred from the automated stations every day to Potsdam.
  • Maintenance of automatic soil, weather and eddy covariance stations
  • Continuation of spatial distributed sampling of soil and surface characteristics
  • Continuation of collection air pictures via ballon, kite or parasail (drone) using new sensors
  • Installation of new automated stations with infrared sensors within Bayelva catchment
  • Drilling of 2-3 m deep boreholes for instrumentation of temperature sensors
  • Geophysical measurements (electrical resistivity) along transects
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Project
KOL 12
GPS High Rate Station
Responsible 
scientist
Carsten Falck 
GFZ Potsdam
General 
information
A high precise GPS-receiver with high time resolution is operated together with the Norwegian Mapping Authority in Ny Ålesund since 1999. Datasets are transmitted continuously and automatically via Internet to the GFZ in Potsdam where they are evaluated for two purposes. Firstly to determine station coordinates, ephemerides for all GPS-satellites and high temporal resolved vertical integrated water vapor for the International GPS Service (IGS). Secondly they are used as reference for the CHAMP-satellite to determine its exact orbit and to calculate water vapor profiles from on board GPS-receiver-data.
Activities at the station since 1999
Continuous operation
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Project
KOL 13
Satellite-receiver CHAMP
Responsible 
scientist
Carsten Falck 
GFZ Potsdam
General 
information
A 4m antenna is operated to receive data from the CHAMP satellite of GFZ after each pass. The data are transferred to GFZ Potsdam via ISDN and processed in near real time. The orbit of CHAMP is calculated from these data within less than three hours and used to determine the bending of  GPS signals in the atmosphere (occultations).  Vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity are derived  and assimilated in climatological and weather forecast models.
Activities at the station 2004
Continuous operation; upgrade of the antenna system for multi-satellite data reception

2005
Continuous operation; installation of redundant antenna system

since 2006 continuous operation
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Project
KOL 14
Observations of Clouds and Aerosols by automated Micro Pulse Lidar and All Sky Imager
Responsible 
scientist
M. Shiobara, R. Neuber
NIPR, AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
Within a co-operation of NIPR with AWI, NIPR has installed a Micro-Pulse Lidar System (MPL) and and All-Sky-Imager in the Atmospheric Observatory of AWIPEV Base. The All-Sky-Imaging camera is added to another all-sky-camera mounted at the Japanese Station Rabben in Ny-Ålesund, about 4 km away from the AWIPEV observatory. The research purpose of a pair of the system is aiming at the reconstruction of 3-D cloud structures from bi-positioned images.
The MPL is part of the global  Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET), which comprised of ground-based lidar systems. The MPLNET project utilizes the micro-pulse lidar (MPL) systems, which is a compact and eye-safe visible lidar capable of determining the range of aerosols and clouds continuously in an autonomous fashion. Basic data from the MPL include aerosol and cloud layer heights. The unique capability of this lidar is to operate largely unattended.
The primary purpose of MPLNET is to acquire long-term observations of aerosol and cloud vertical structure. These types of observations are required for several satellite validation programs, are useful for studies of aerosol transport, and are also a high priority in the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The combined lidar and sunphotometer measurements are able to produce quantitative aerosol and cloud products, such as optical depth, sky radiance, vertical structure, and extinction profiles.

Activities at the station since 2006
Continuation of the automated operation
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Project
KOP 10
High altitude balloon-borne ozone observations (BOS-Arctic)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Hartwig Gernandt, Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
In order to get detailed vertical ozone profiles above the range of standard electrochemical ozonesondes (typically 35 km), a radiosonde together with an optical ozonesensor is launchend with a special plastic foliage balloon. The balloon payload consists of a digital radiosonde (DFM 90) using GPS for altitude measurements and a two channel filter spectrometer (optical sensor) to measure the vertical ozone distribution up to more than  40 km altitude. The ozone profiles obtained by the optical sensors will be compared with ground-based microwave and lidar ozone observations as well as with the standard balloon-borne ozone measurements with electrochemical ozone sensors.
Activities at 
the station
1994
first launch of BOS-sensor in the Arctic. 
 
1995
two launches of BOS-sondes  (31th of July and 3rd of August) 
First test of coupling BOS-sensor with the  DFM 90 (radio sonde). 
 
1996
four launches of BOS-sondes. New Interface between BOS-sensor and DFM 90 
 
1997
one launch of BOS-sondes. Test with DFM 90 with coded GPS  for height-determination 
 
1998
launch of three sondes in august 1998 
 
2000
no launch 
 
2001
Comparison between BOS-sensor and UV-spectrometer (KOL 05): ground measurement. 
Two BOS.-launches during the same ozone situation with different solar zenith angles. 
Test of a new analysis-algorithm. 

2002
No activities.
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Project
KOP 17
Quantitative Understanding of Ozone losses by Bipolar Investigations (QUOBI), Stratospheric ozone loss determination (Match)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Peter von der Gathen
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
By launching several hundred ozonesondes at many Arctic and sub-Arctic stations, one of them Ny-Ålesund, the stratospheric chemical ozone loss will be determined.  The launches of all stations will be coordinated by analysis of trajectory calculations based on analysis and forecast wind fields.  The aim is to get as many ozone sounding pairs as possible, each of them linked by trajectories in space and time.  A statistical description of the ozone differences given by the first and the second measurement of individual sonde pairs will yield the chemical ozone loss with spatial and time resolution.
The primary objective of Match campaigns is to determine the degree of ozone loss in the polar stratosphere.  From the ozonesonde data set gathered within former campaigns two deficiencies in our current understanding of polar ozone loss had been deduced.  1. The high ozone losses measured in January in some of the winters cannot be reproduced by models.  2. In winters with high integrated ozone losses models generally underestimate the losses.  It is therefore the second objective of Match campaigns to provide high quality ozone loss data sets which are very well suited to be compared with model results in order to tackle the open questions.
Activities at 
the station
1998
launch of ozone sondes from January to March and in December 
 
1999
launch of ozone sondes in January and February 
 
2000
launch of ozone sondes from January to March 
 
2001
launch of ozone sondes from January to March 
 
2002
launch of ozone sondes if requested 
 
2003
launch of ozone sondes if requested 
  
2004
launch of ozone sondes if requested

2005
Ozonesonde launches on requests from Potsdam

2006
Ozonesonde launches on requests from Potsdam

2007

Ozonesonde launches on requests from Potsdam

2008
y launching several hundred ozonesondes at many Arctic and sub-Arctic stations, one of them Ny-Alesund, the stratospheric chemical ozone loss will be determined. The launches of all stations will be coordinated by analysis of trajectory calculations based on analysis and forecast wind fields. The aim is to get as many ozone sounding pairs as possible, each of them linked by trajectories in space and time. A statistical description of the ozone differences given by the first and the second measurement of individual sonde pairs will yield the chemical ozone loss with spatial and time resolution.

The primary objective of Match campaigns is to determine the degree of ozone loss in the polar stratosphere. Part of the understanding of the ozone loss chemistry is currently under discussion. The main objective of Match campaigns is to provide high quality ozone loss data sets which are very well suited to be compared with model results in order to tackle these open questions.

Ny-Alesund will be the most important station within the network since it is almost always situated below the stratospheric polar vortex during the winter time. The ozonesonde launch rate will be increased to 3-5 sondes per week during the campaign.

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Project
KOP 36
BKS and OPC balloons
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
Observations of stratospheric aerosols are carried out with balloon borne backscatter sondes and optical particle counter sondes. 

Backscattersondes (BKS): 
The backscatter sonde from the University of Wyoming is a well proven balloon borne aerosol sounding instrument operating with two channels ("blue" 480nm and "red" 940nm). Light emitted from a xenon flashlamp is backscattered by atmospheric aerosols and recorded by two photomultiplier devices. The flashlamp is triggered approximately every 7 seconds, giving a vertical resolution of the retrieved backscatter profiles of about 30m as determined by the ascent rate of the balloon. A standard meteorological package giving atmospheric pressure and temperature allows to calculate the altitude of the balloon. The resulting backscatter profiles can be compared with corresponding Lidar measurements and allow to derive properties of the aerosols. As the measured quantity "backscatter ratio" is directly comparable with the backscatter ratio derived from an aerosol Lidar, simultaneous measurements are planned, which will allow to evaluate the Lidar measurements also within the NDSC framework. A combination of the different wavelengths from the Lidar and balloon sounding will allow to better characterise polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) according to their particle sizes, surface, mass and volume densities. 

Optical particle counter sonde (OPC):
The balloon-borne aerosol sonde based on  an optical particle counter (OPC) was developed at the University of Nagoya, Japan. Air sampled by a pump is analysed by light from a laser diode. Retrieved spectra allow to determine aerosol size distributions and other properties of aerosols. Pressure, temperature and humidity from a VAISALA radio sonde are transferred by telemetry to the AWI receiver station together with the aerosol data, allowing to retrieve the altitude profiles. 

The project aims at a better understanding of the processes which form, change and evaporate Polar Stratospheric Clouds.

Activities at the station 1996
Launch of 7 sondes in January and February. 
 
1997
Launch of 3 sondes in January and February. 
 
1999
Launch of 1 sonde in February. 
 
2000
Launch of 1 sonde in January. 
 
2001
no launch
 
2002
no launch 

2003
a) Preparation and start of up to 3 backscatter sondes from the University of Wyoming under proper weather conditions (cold stratosphere and low windspeed on the ground)
b)  Start of up to 2 NOAA frost-point hygrometers
c) Support for the start of up to 3 balloons with optical particle counter  (OPC) to determine the tropospheric and the stratospheric particle size distribution of aerosols

2004
Launch of several stratospheric aerosol balloon playloads during December to March 2004/5

2006
During winter 2006/7 balloon borne sondes shall be launched according to the occurrence of low temperatures, which allow for PSC existence. Lidar measurements of PSC shall be available to determine, whether a launch is suitable
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Project
KOP 43
UV-B Personal-related dosimetry by using an electronical Dosimeter, ELUV-14 
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Saad El Naggar
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
UV-B dosis at personal related level will be carried out at Koldewey-Station, Ny-Ålesund, by using an electonical dosimeter (ELUV-14). Individuals will carry the dosimeter as badge and at the same time the global UV-B-dosis will be measured by an equal system. Objects of this project are: 
1. Determination of the individual UV-B-dosis, 
2. Determination of the global UV-B-dosis, 
3. Estimation of the UV-B risks at Koldewey-Station by comparing the measured dosis with the maximum dosis which reached the earth surface by sun elevation of 90°.
Activities at the station 1998/1999
Dosimeters are in use at the station. Data is collected regularly and sent to Bremerhaven.
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Project
KOP 50
Life cycle strategies of planktic copepods in the high-Arctic Kongsfjord/ Spitsbergen with special reference to their overwintering strategies (diapause) 
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Hagen
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The life cycle strategies of small dominant calanoid (Pseudocalanus minutus and P. acuspes) and cyclopoid (Oithona similis) copepods will be investigated in a high-Arctic fjord on Svalbard. 
Activities at the station 1999
Vertical zooplankton samples will be taken continuously in the Kongsfjord close to Ny-Ålesund over a one-year period. Experiments with live specimens (egg production, nauplii hatching) and first physiological measurements (respiration) will be carried out in Longyearbyen at UNIS. Zooplankton samples will be analysed in terms of species abundance, stage and sex composition. Gonad maturation will be determined via morphological characteristics. Histological, biochemical and physiological investigations (food spectrum, gut epithel, lipid content and composition, respiration, level of ecdysteroid hormones) are supposed to characterize the activity and reproductive state of the species. These results will also allow to draw conclusions about their overwintering strategies (e.g. diapause). In addition, sediment samples will be examined for diapause stages (eggs, cysts). 
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Project
KOP 51
Succession of benthic communities in polar environments:
Benthic resilience in polar environments: a comparison
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Wolf Arntz
Dr. Jürgen Laudien
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Succession of communities and individual growth of benthic invertebrates are more or less unknown in polar waters, but nevertheless are the basic parameters of understanding the benthic sub-ecosystem, delivering data for modelling and prediction of the system´s development. Three localities, two in the Antarctic and one in the Arctic, the Kongsfjord in Spitsbergen, have been choosen as investigation localities. Hard and soft substrates, which will be sampled in regular intervalls during the duration of the project, will be deployed at different depths. The analysis includes species composition, species growth and, with respect to soft substrates, sediment parameters. 
Activities at the station 1999
27 soft-sediment trays were deployed by divers at 10, 20, and 30 m depth (9 each). One frame with plastic panels was put out at each depth. 
 
2000
The trays are checked. 
 
2001
In 2001 the substrates brought out in 1999 could not be found; It is likely that icebergs have destroyed the experiment, as many iceberg scratches have been observed in the area by SCUBA. A "protected" site was chosen and a new set-up installed. After a storm this set-up could not be found again either. 
Additionally, 10 natural areas at a vertical rock-wall (Hansneset) were photographed and 50 x 50 areas cleaned in 2001. Further 50 photos of the natural communities along transects were taken at different depths (30, 25, 20, 15 m) and at different sites (Prinz Heinrich, Hansneset, Kongsfjordneset) for community analyses. The analyses are in process at the moment. 
 
2002
A new attempt to study early succession in Kongsfjord will be made during the campaign 2002. Recolonisation panels will be fixed directly to a vertical granite wall at two sites at 25 m depth. Additional natural areas will be cleaned, marked and photographed to follow succession. A new approach will be made to study recolonisation on soft bottoms (at 20 m 
depth), e.g., removing sediment from experimental areas using an airlift and filling the gap with a sand-benthonite mixture. This new approach seems necessary to minimize iceberg impact. 
 
2003
Hard bottom succession panels (HBSP) at Kongsfordneset and the soft bottom succession containers (SBSC) at Brandal installed during the season 2002 will be sampled during 2003. Photos of all 41 HBSP will be taken with a macro-lens in order to document the succession. Additionally five panels will be removed from the installed adapters and replaced by new panels in order to study annual differences in primary succession. Organisms, which have settled on the panels will be removed in the laboratory and fixed for later identification. 

Further ten natural areas of hard bottom will be marked, thereafter photos will be taken and the organisms removed. The succession of the cleaned natural areas will be monitored during the following years. 

Likewise macrophotos of the surfaces of the 28 installed SBSC will be taken by SCUBA divers. Five SBSCs will be sampled by an underwater airlift system and species composition analysed in the laboratory thereafter. Individuals will be counted, meassured, weighted and thereafter ashed in order to calculate ash free dry mass. The Benthonit/sand mixture of the sampled SBSC will be removed completely and replaced by an accordant new sediment mixture. Additionally ten new SBSCs will be installed. Further soft sediment samples will be taken with a diver-handled box-corer. Species will be identified and community analyses conducted. 

Supplementary a sediment trap ISITRAP (by Isitec, Bremerhaven, Germany) will be installed in the research area of the SBSCs and samples taken daily during the summer season.  These samples will provide a good knowledge of the sedimentation on the soft-bottom succession experiment and will be the basis for future correlations in species occurrence, abundance and growth in relation to sinking plankton blooms. 
 
2004
Hard bottom succession panels (HBSP) will be sampled again during 2004. Photos of all 40 HBSP will be taken like last year. As already in 2003 five original panels will be removed from the installed adapters and replaced by new panels. Furthermore five of the 2003 replaced panels will also be replaced again in order to study annual differences in primary succession. Settled organisms will be removed in the laboratory and fixed for later identification. Biomass will be estimated from a subsample in Bremerhaven, thereafter this subsample will be dried at 60°C, weighed again and ashed thereafter in order to estimate ash free dry mass. 
The ten natural areas of hard bottom cleaned and marked in 2003 will again be photographed and the succession be monitored by image analyses in Bremerhaven. The hard bottom succession will be followed during the next years. 
Macrophotos of the surfaces of the 27 installed SBSC will be taken by SCUBA divers. Like in 2003 five SBSCs will be sampled by an underwater airlift system and species composition analysed in the laboratory thereafter. Again individuals will be counted, measured, weighted and thereafter ashed in order to calculate ash free dry mass. The Benthonit/sand mixture of the sampled SBSC will be removed completely and replaced by an identical sediment mixture. Furthermore soft sediment samples will be taken along transects at six different depths. 
The installed sediment trap (ISITRAP, Isitac, Bremerhaven, Germany) will be taken out, reprogrammed for daily samples during the summer season and reinstalled in the research area of the SBSCs. At the end of the season the sediment trap will again be programmed in a way that one sample will be taken per month during the winter season in order to get comparable data to the winter 2003/04 series. Sediment samples will be fixed in 4% Borax buffered formalin and species identification performed in Bremerhaven. These samples will provide a good knowledge of sedimentation on the soft-bottom succession experiment and will be the basis to correlate species occurrence, abundance and growth to sedimenting plankton blooms.

2005
Hard bottom succession panels (HBSP) at Kongsfordneset and soft-bottom succession containers (SBSC) at Brandal installed in 2002 and recovered 2003 and 2004 will again be sampled during 2005. Photos of all 40 HBSP will be taken with a macrolens in order to document the recolonisation over time. As in previous years five original panels will be removed from the installed adapters and replaced by new panels. Furthermore five of the 2003 and five of the 2004 reinstalled panels will be replaced again in order to study annual differences in primary succession. Settled organisms will be removed in the laboratory and fixed for later identification, analyses for Chlorophyll a and estimation of biomass. The ten natural areas of hard bottom cleaned and marked in 2003, as well as ten natural areas marked in 2004 will again be photographed and the succession and changes in the communities be monitored by image analyses. Hard-bottom succession will be followed during the next years. Macrophotos of the surfaces of the 28 installed SBSC will be taken by SCUBA divers. Like in the two previous years five SBSCs of each year will be sampled by an underwater airlift system and species composition analysed in the laboratory thereafter. Samples will be fixed for later counting, measuring, weighing and thereafter ashing in order to calculate ash free dry mass. The Benthonit/sand mixture of the sampled SBSC will be removed completely and replaced by an identical sediment mixture. Furthermore soft sediment samples will be taken along transects at six different depths.
As structural engineering measures have improved the sediment trap (ISITRAP, ISITEC, Bremerhaven, Germany) we will make another attempt to get data on larval supply and sedimentation of food to the benthos. Therefore the trap will be reinstalled and reprogrammed for daily samples during the summer season in the research area of the SBSCs. At the end of the season the sediment trap will again be programmed in a way that one sample will be taken per month during the winter season. Sediment samples will be fixed in 4% Borax buffered formalin and species identification performed in Bremerhaven. These samples will be the basis to correlate species occurrence, abundance and growth to sedimenting plankton blooms. The genetic variation of key species of the benthic fauna will be determined, using molecular markers as ISSRs. This will allow to infer about dispersion abilities, colonization and/or re-colonization possibilities of the studied species in the small scale (from metres to kilometres). A similar project is actually running in Antarctic waters. These results will allow comparison of dispersal capabilities of sessile benthic groups. The fieldwork consists in sampling at least ten individuals of each key species at each station. At least 6 stations will be sampled (Konjsfjordneset, Hansneset, Prins Heinrich, London and Gordøya, and Forlandsundet). Sampled individuals will be dissected and a sample of the mantle fixed and conserved in 100 % ethanol. Analysis will be done in Cordoba.

2006
Hard bottom succession panels (HBSP) at Kongsfordneset and soft-bottom succession containers (SBSC) at Brandal will be sampled according to schedule during 2006. Photos of the remaining 36 HBSP will be taken and three original panels of each treatment (1-, 2-, 3-, 4-years exposure, and grooved 1-year) will be removed from the installed adapters and replaced by new panels. Settled organisms will be removed in the Marine Laboratory and fixed for later identification, analyzed for Chlorophyll a and biomass estimated thereafter.

Marked natural and cleaned hard bottom areas will again be photographed and monitored by image analyses. Hard-bottom succession will be followed during the next years.

Macrophotos of the surfaces of the remaining 15 SBSC will again be taken by scientific divers. As during previous years three SBSCs of each year will be sampled by an underwater airlift system and species composition analysed in the laboratory thereafter. Samples will be fixed for later counting, measuring, and estimation of biomass. Additionally sediment samples of the SBSCs will be taken to estimate the input of organic material into the benthic system. The Benthonit/sand mixture of the sampled SBSC will be removed and replaced by an identical sediment mixture. Furthermore soft sediment samples will be taken along transects at six different depths (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30m).

We will make another attempt to get data on larval supply and sedimentation of food to the seafloor by using a sediment trap (iSiTRAP, iSiTEC, Bremerhaven, Germany) if the company can ensure that the equipment is working this time. The trap will be retrieved early in the season, reprogrammed for daily samples during the summer season and reinstalled in the research area of the SBSCs. At the end of the season the sediment trap will again be programmed in a way that one sample will be taken per month during the winter season. Sediment samples will be fixed in 4% borax buffered formalin and species identification performed in Bremerhaven. These samples will be the basis with correlate species occurrence, abundance and growth to sedimenting plankton blooms.

In order to describe sublittoral communities between 30 and 200m depth a video device will be used to record video transects at five different locations already sampled using a photographic method (shallow communities down to 30m) and published in Sahade et al. 2004.

The genetic population structure at microgeographic scale of key species of the benthic fauna will be determined, using molecular markers such as ISSRs. This will allow to infer about dispersion abilities and colonization and/or re-colonization possibilities of the studied species in the small scale (from metres to kilometres). A similar project is actually running in Antarctic waters. These results will allow comparison of dispersal capabilities of sessile benthic groups.

The fieldwork consists in sampling at least 30 individuals of each key species (2 ascidians, and Serripes groenlandicus) at different stations. At least 6 stations will be sampled for the ascidians (Konjsfjordneset, Hansneset, Prins Heinrich, London and Gordøya, and one place outside Kongsfjorden) and at least 3 stations for cockles (Ny-Ålesund harbour, Brandal, Forlandsundet). Sampled individuals will be dissected and a sample of the mantle fixed and conserved in 80 % ethanol. Analysis will be conducted in Cordoba and Bremerhaven, respectively.

2007
In order to extend the uninterrupted time series we will again sample the hard bottom succession panels (HBSP) at Kongsfordneset and soft-bottom succession containers (SBSC) at Brandal according to schedule during 2007. Photos of the remaining panels will be taken and three original panels of each treatment will be disconnected from the installed adapters and replaced by new panels. Settled organisms will be removed in the Arctic Marine Laboratory and fixed for later identification, analyzed for Chlorophyll a and biomass estimated thereafter.
Marked natural and cleaned hard bottom areas will again be photographed and monitored by image analyses to follow hard-bottom succession.
Macrophotos of the surfaces of the SBSC will be taken again by scientific divers. As during previous years three SBSCs of each year will be sampled by an underwater airlift system and species composition analysed in the laboratory thereafter. Samples will be fixed for later counting, measuring, and estimation of biomass. Additionally sediment samples of the SBSCs will be taken to estimate the input of organic material into the benthic system. The Benthonit/sand mixture of the sampled SBSC will be removed and replaced by an identical sediment mixture.
Beside the macrobenthic colonization, our analyses showed a succession in the meiofauna colonizing the SBSC. Further core samples will be taken for meiofauna analyses following the macrofauna schedule. The fixed meiofauna samples will be processed in Wilhelmshaven.
Functional aspects of developing and mature Arctic benthic fauna remain poorly known. Therefore we will conduct an integrated baseline analyses based on an understanding of the fundamental ecological processes that drive diversity and community structure patterns and dynamics, their impacts on the Arctic ecosystem functioning, and potential system responses to environmental changes. Studies on the trophic position in temperate and tropical areas have lead to conflicting results, research in polar environments is preliminary and restricted to a limited number of habitats. A larger understanding of the current functionality of macro- and meiobenthic communities in different habitats is needed, and will allow assessing how these processes can be affected by changes and disturbances in the environment. These changes might also impact structural aspects of the communities, such as community composition and diversity. Therefore we will focus this year on different aspects of the ecofunctional diversity of arctic benthic organisms. A combination of two up-to-date tracer techniques to determine the trophic structure of Kongsfjorden communities will be applied. The i) trophic level of the different species within the food web will be determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes ratios, while ii) trophic relationships to other taxa will be investigated by analyzing the lipid composition and the fatty acid signatures of predator species and their potential prey. Both approaches are complemented by direct observation of feeding relations and alimentation. Enrichment experiments with labelled food sources will be conducted at least for the meiofauna. The isotope approach can contribute to elucidating food web processes at two different scales that are particularly difficult to study using traditional techniques: i) that of whole food webs such as the mean number of trophic transfers between the bottom and the top species. These transfers define the stratigraphy of a food web, i.e. the proportion of species at each level above the basal species. If some of the basal species have isotopic signatures that are different enough, the approach enables us to identify the existence of separate or confluent pathways of matter transfer. ii) Analyzing the lipid composition and the fatty acid signatures of the involved taxa yields knowledge about the food origin (macroalgae, phytoplankton etc.) and hence the food chains within the web.
Approximately eight living macrofaunal individuals of several species will be sampled (airlift, [bow] nets, cores, by hand and transferred in Zip-lock plastic bags by SCUBA divers) starting with the soft bottom habitat at Brandal. For the meiofauna cores will be collected by SCUBA diving and coring – in case of the enrichment experiments – incubated under controlled conditions in the lab. Animals will be defecated for some time in the Arctic Marine Laboratory, thereafter shock frozen in liquid nitrogen and transferred in -80°C. In order to get insights of the input of fresh material to the benthos we will make another attempt to get data on sedimentation to the seafloor by using a sediment trap (iSiTRAP, iSiTEC, Bremerhaven, Germany). The trap will be retrieved early in the season, reprogrammed for daily samples during the summer season and reinstalled in the research area of the SBSCs. At the end of the season the sediment trap will be programmed in a way that one sample will be taken per month during the winter season. Sediment samples will be fixed and analyses performed in Bremerhaven. The findings on food input will be backed by potential macroalgal food source analysis (fatty acids, stable isotopes) from the same habitats. The thin-layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection method of Fraser et al. (1985) shall be applied. In order to describe sublittoral communities between 30 and 200m depth a video device (ROV) will be used to record video transects at five different locations already sampled using a photographic method (shallow communities down to 30m) and published in Sahade et al. 2004.
The sampling for the genetic population structure at microgeographic scale of key species will be completed if there is still data required. This can however only be determined in the next weeks when the samples from 2006 are processed.

2008
Yearly sampling of long-term experiments
Validation with field observations

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Project
KOP 53
SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
In preparation to the launch of the SAGE III experiment in March 2001, NASA and the European Union performed the SOLVE / THESEO-2000 campaign, which had three components: (i) an aircraft campaign using the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 airplanes out of Kiruna/Sweden, (ii) launches of large stratospheric research balloons from Kiruna, (iii) validation excercises for the commissioning phase of SAGE III. The German Arctic research station Koldewey in Ny-Ålesund/Spitsbergen contributes to (i), (ii), and (iii) by performing measurements of stratospheric components like ozone, trace gases, aerosols (PSCs), temperature and winds. The measurement results were transmitted quasi online to the flight planning center in Kiruna, in order to allow a better directing of the air plane flights. In addition the Koldewey-Station has been designated a validation anchor site for the SAGE III validation. The activities are organized within a NASA accepted proposal of ground-based validation support by the NDSC Primary Station at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen and by a SAGE III validation working group for Ny-Ålesund. The main observation periods are from December 1999 to March 2000. 
Activities at 
the station
1999/2000
Main observation periods  from December 1999 to March 15,  2000
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Project
KOP 56
Adaptation of bacteria in marine sediments to Arctic temperatures 
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Bo Baker Jørgensen
Max-Planck Institute of Marine Biology
General 
information
The goal is to understand, how bacteria in Arctic sediments are adapted to low temperature and how (climatic) changes of temperature may affect the rate and pathways of carbon cycling and the balance of mineral cycles. The diversity and physiology of bacterial populations of fjord sediments on West-Spitzbergen will be studied by a combination of molecular (16S rRNA sequence analyses and in situ hybridization) and microbiological (isolation and physiology of pure cultures) approaches. The metabolic activity of these bacteria in the sea floor and the temperature regulation of the dominant mineralization processes will be analysed by experimentel techniques during the research period in Ny Ålesund. The focus will be on the enzymatic cleavage of polymeric carbohydrates, the anaerobic respiration through sulfate reduction, the reduction of iron and mangenese oxides, and the turnover of volatile fatty acids and hydrogen. Subsequently, psychrophilic bacteria are isolated from the anoxic sediments and studied in pure culture. The bacterial populations in the sediment are studied by molecular methods to analyze their diversity and metabolic activity. 
Activities at the station 2001
Samples will be collected in several fjords of West and North Svalbard and transported to the Koldewey-Station, Ny-Ålesund, for further analysis and preservation.

2003
- Expedition with MS "FARM" from Longyearbyen; sampling of sediment cores from Kongsfjorden and other Fjords of northwest Spitsbergen
  • Refurbishment and preservation of the samples in the Arctic Marine Laboratory at Ny-Ålesund for geochemical and molecular biological analyses
  • Experimental determination of mineralisation rates in sediment using labeled substances
  • Accumulation of psychrophil bacteria with the intention to establish pure culture
  • Laboratory-experiments on decomposition of polymer, organic material to substrate for sulfatereducing bacteria
  • Laboratory-experiments on temperatureregulation of bacterial processes in sediment
  • Analysis of porewater constituents
  • Sampling for molecular biological analyses on the bacteria population

2005

Expedition with MS "FARM" from Longyearbyen

  • Sampling of sediment cores from Isfjorden, Kongsfjorden, and Smeerenburgfjorden.
  • Subsampling and preservation of the samples in the Arctic Marine Laboratory at Ny-Ålesund for geochemical and molecular biological analyses
  • Experimental determination of mineralisation rates in sediment using labeled substances
  • Analysis of porewater constituents

2006
In the upcoming season, we would like to establish the spatial distribution of thermophilic spore-forming sulphate-reducing bacteria in the western fjords. We will orient ourselves along geological features that potentially serve as conduits for transport of thermophilic spores into the cold Arctic ocean, i.e., fault zones, vents, and hydrothermal seepages. The planned field work will serve as reconnaissance study for a bigger ship expedition to the western fjords planned in 2007. Additional sediment material will be collected to continue temperature adaptation experiments with Ymerbukta and Smeerenburgfjorden sediment. Bottom water and surface sediment will be collected to test a suite of new tagged polymeric substrates to continue our investigations of enzymatic hydrolytic decomposition of organic matter in low-temperature environments. For the molecular studies, samples will be assayed using fluorescent in-situ hybridization of 16S ribosomal RNA and the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. In addition, we will apply 16S rDNA microarrays to assess the microbial diversity of the sulfate-reducing community.

2007
  • Collect sediment for freeze-thaw experiments from intertidal environments
  • Collect suspended particles from the water column for sulfur isotopic analysis, for investigations of spore-forming thermophilic microrganisms, determination of bacterial hydrolysis rates
  • Determine of porewater nutrient and metal profiles
  • Determine sediment oxygen uptake rates
  • Collect water column and sediment samples for experimental and molecular investigations of the nitrogen cycle in Arctic sediments
  • Quantify mineralization rates by iron- and manganese-reducing microrganisms
  • Collect sediment and water samples for further investigations of thermophilic spore-formers in Arctic environmentsy

2008
Sailing with MS FARM from Longyearbyen along the west coast of Spitzbergen with main sampling sites in Smeerenburgfjorden, Kongsfjorden, Ymerbukta and Isfjorden. Sediment sampling will employ HAPS and Rumohr corers and water sampling will use a Niskin bottle. Detailed sample processing, rate measurements, initial experiments and initial analytical work will be done in Ny Alesund. During the field season 2008, the primary goals will be to:

A) Sample sediment and water in fjords on the west coast of Spitzbergen for microbiological, biogeochemical, and experimental process studies in the laboratory.

B) Explore the spatial distribution of thermophilic spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria in the western fjords.

C) Additional sediment material will be collected to continue temperature adaptation experiments with Ymerbukta and Smeerenburgfjorden sediment.

D) Bottom water and surface sediment will be collected to test a suite of new tagged polymeric substrates to continue our investigations of enzymatic hydrolytic decomposition of organic matter in low-temperature environments.

E) Samples will be assayed for molecular studies using fluorescent in-situ hybridization and quantitative PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. In addition, we will apply 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assess the microbial diversity of the sulfate-reducing community both in situ and following high temperature incubations.

F) Pathways, rates and microbiology of dominant mineralization processes for sediment organic carbon, including nitrate, manganese and iron reduction will be studied and compared to overall nutrient cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus.

G) Temperature regulation of motility in the large filamentous sulfur bacteria, Beggiatoa spp., will be studied by microscopic imaging techniques.

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Project
KOP 57
Marine fungi and related protists in arctic littoral habitats: diversity and association
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. K. Schaumann
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Objective of this mycologic research work is to investigate and characterise the almost unknown  diversity and association of marine fungi and related protists in arctic littoral habitats. Most interesting are fungi associated with solid substrates like macroalgae and sponges. Therefore cooperation with the researcher team from PD Dr. C. Wiencke (macroalgae) is  planned.
Activities at the station 2000
In June -July samples will be collected by divers to examine fungi under the electron and the light microscope as well as with culture methods. Taxonomic identification and experimental tests of physiological and biochemical efficiency are to be done. Of high interest is the phylogenetic classification of the associated fungi to be realized with molecular genetic analysis (18-, 28S-rRNA-Gen- and IST-sequencing).
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Project
KOP 58
Antifeeding strategies of marine invertebrates
Responsible 
scientist
H. Lippert, Dr. E. Rachor
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Besides morphological-structural characters such as hard surfaces, spines and shells, or the behavioural ability to escape, chemically-based anti-feeding mechanisms are of main interest in the present project. In contrast to many other marine regions chemical interactions between marine invertebrates in Arctic waters are little understood. The detection and identification of chemical compounds protecting against predators and the structural elucidation of these mainly secondary metabolites will be investigated. 
Activities at the station 1999
Feeding-bioassays with the crustacean Anonyx nugax were established in the laboratory and in the field to look for anti-feeding strategies. These assays were performed on tissues of 16 invertebrate species collected by scuba diving. Underwater photographic documentation of the marine fauna was undertaken. 

2000
Bioassays on tissues performed in 1999 were extended on crude extracts of the same invertebrate species. Two organisms showed promising results. Underwater photographic documentation of the marine fauna was undertaken. 
 
2001
Species which exhibited anti-feeding activity in 1999 and 2000 will be chemically studied in more detail. Field-assays will be continued as well as collection of animal material for further work in Bremerhaven.
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Project
KOP 59
SAMMOA-FTIR
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Justus Notholt
University of Bremen
General 
information
The aim of the SAMMOA project is to study the stratospheric ozon depletion during the summer time period. While the processes during winter/spring are investigated in detail the summertime ozone loss has not been studied so far.
Activities at the station 2000
intensive measurement campaign 
 
2001
Beside the routine observations within the NDSC it is planned to perform FTIR solar absorpiton measurements of ozone and related species much more frequently. 
 
2002
Beside the routine observations within the NDSC it is planned to perform FTIR solar absorption measurements of ozone and related species on much more observation days. 
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Project
KOP 60
Aerosol-FTIR
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Justus Notholt
University of Bremen
General 
information
The aim of the project is to study the properties (radiative effects, composition) of aerosols using FTIR emission spectroscopy. To determine seasonal changes in aerosol properties the measurements will be carried out year round on a weekly schedule. 
Activities at the station 2000
Regular FTIR emission measurements all year. 

2003
Study the seasonal variability of the radiative properties of tropospheric aerosols using FTIR emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the height distribution of aerosols and their composition will be investigated. During intense campaigns the observations are performed by the project scientist. For the rest of the year the spectra are recorded  within the NDSC activities by the NDSC-engineer at the station typically once per month.
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Project
KOP 61
ASTAR 2000
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
ASTAR, Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation is a a joint German (AWI Potsdam) - Japanese (NIPR Tokyo) campaign with participation from NASA LaRC Hampton, VA (USA). In addition to AWI, NIPR, and NASA LaRC  the following institutions contributed to the project: Hokkaido University (Japan), Nagoya University (Japan), Norwegian Polar Institute Tromsoe/ Longyearbyen (Norway), NILU Kjeller (Norway), MISU Stockholm (Sweden), NOAA-CMDL Boulder, CO (USA) and Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany). 

The campaign is based on simultaneous airborne measurements from the German research aircraft POLAR 4 and ground-based measurements in Ny-Ålesund. 

The main goals of the project are 

  • to measure aerosol parameters of climate relevance, like extinction coefficient, absoprtion coefficients, and phase function. 
  • to create an Arctic Aerosol Data Set for climate impact investigation, by using the regional climate model HIRHAM. 
  • to carry out comparison measurements with the SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) and the ground based Raman-Lidar.
Activities at the station 2000
main campaign phase with flight activities: 15. March - 20. April
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Project
KOP 63
Metabolism of evertebrates: role of Mycosporin amino acid 
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. D. Abele-Oeschger
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Das Projekt untersucht die physiologische Funktion UV-absorbierender Mycosporin-ähnlicher Aminosäuren (MAAs) als Sekundärmetabolite in marinen Evertebraten. Die Tiere nehmen diese Verbindungen mit ihrer pflanzlichen Nahrung (Phytoplankton, Makroalgen) auf und lagern sie offenbar gezielt in UV-gefährdete Gewebe und in die Reproduktionsorgane ein. Das natürliche Vorkommen von MAAs soll in ausgewählten Gruppen mariner Evertebraten der Arktis (Spitzbergen) quantitativ und qualitativ erfaßt werden. Die Beziehung zwischen MAA-Akkumulation einerseits, und der UV-Exposition sowie der 
Nahrungsspezifikation der Tiere andererseits soll zeigen, ob MAAs von heterotrophen Organismen gezielt resorbiert und als UV-Schutz angereichert werden können. Darüber hinaus soll eine mögliche antioxidative Schutzwirkung der MAAs im Vergleich mit bekannten Antioxidantien (z.B. Vitamine C) untersucht werden. Gesamtziel des beantragten Vorhabens ist die Untersuchung der UV-Anpassung mariner Evertebraten aus der Arktis über die Akkumulation von MAAs als sunscreener mit möglicherweise antioxidativen Eigenschaften.
Activities at the station 2001
Diving activities in June, July
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Project
KOP 64
Ecological interactions between zoo- and phytobenthos with regard to defense-mechanisms against grazing pressure
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Hagen / Universität Bremen 
Prof. Dr. Christian Wiencke / AWI Bremerhaven 
Prof. Dr. Ulf Karsten / University of Rostock 
Hendrik Wessels / Universität Bremen
General 
information
Benthic macroalgae communities of the arctic ocean provide habitat, protection, nursery and nutrition to a large number of invertebrates In contrast to temperate and tropical regions the basic ecological interactions between zoo- and phytobenthos of the Arctic are little understood. Therefore this project for the first time investigates  biological and chemical interactions between invertebrates and macroalgae on Spitsbergen/Svalbard (Koldewey research station) with special emphasis on defense mechanisms against grazing pressure. Initial diving-investigations will map the invertebrate fauna which is associated with the macroalgae; the following feeding-experiments with herbivorous animals aim to selectively identify generalists, generalists with preference or specialists. Additional bioassays serve to reveal structural and/or chemical properties of those plants, which affect a specific impact on the grazing of herbivores. Our investigations on the chemical protection of the algae against grazing focus on the basic mechanisms and the chemical structure of potent secondary metabolites carried out in cooperation with natural product chemists.
Activities at the station 2001
The goal is a first-time investigation of the ecological and chemical interactions between invertebrates and macroalgae in the Arctic with special emphasis on defense mechanisms against grazing pressure. Diving investigations will be carried out in order to obtain adequate qualitative and quantitative data. 
Regarding herbivory, it will be documented, which macroalgae are utilized by which animals. On site diving investigations will classify to what extent the investigated herbivorous animals can be identified as generalists, generalists with preference or specialists. The fieldwork will provide hints on the particular physico-chemical properties of those plants, which are affected by different degrees of grazing by herbivores. Also chemical protection from grazing can play a prominent role as defense mechanism in addition to the plant?s quality as nutritional source, structural properties and epiphytal growth. 
 
2002
As in 2001 diving investigations will be carried out to observe the abundances and distribution patterns of selected herbivorous invertebrates on the most common macroalgae. Scuba diving is also used to ensure a careful and selective sampling procedure. The invertebrates shall be used as model organisms for feeding experiments in the lab later on. With regard to feeding deterrents, experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extent the macroalgae are utilized as nutritional source. The grazers will not only be offered fresh algal tissue, but also embedded algal extracts to distinguish between structural and chemical characteristics of potential feeding deterrents.
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Project
KOP 66
SAGE III Validation
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
The science team of the SAGE III experiment at NASA has nominated the Koldewey-Station as an anchor site to contribute within  the Data Validation Plan as part of the Operational Surface Networks. Data directly relevant to the SAGE III validation are aerosol measurements by photometers and lidar, as well as temperature measurements and ozone profiling by balloon borne sondes, lidar and microwave radiometer. 
SAGE III was launched on the Russian M3 rocket in Dezember 2001. 
Data will be provided quasi online for immediate validation tasks. The NASA science team of the SAGE III experiment has announced the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Ålesund as „anchor site“ for validation, especially for such parameters as optical depth, aerosol extinction profiles and ozone profiles. 
Activities at the station 2001
September - October: Main validation phase during satellite commissioning was planned but not possible 
 
2002
February - March: Main validation phase 
Ozone- and aerosol-LIDAR, photometers and ozone sondes, microwave radiometer, FTIR and UV-spectrometer are supposed to determine stratopheric trace gas concentration. Under PSC-conditions balloon carried aerosol sondes will be started if applicable. For validation it is very important to provide the essential atmospheric parameters quasi-online. 
 
2003
The instrumentation in the observatory (infrared-spectrometer, ozone- and aerosol-lidar, photometer, ozone-sondes, UV-spectrometer) shall be used for measuring aerosols and trace gases. Main concern for SAGE III validation will be ozone-measurements by means of lidar and sondes, as well as solar and star photometer and aerosol-lidar measurements.
In case of PSC-conditions in the winter balloonborne aerosol-sondes shall be started. It is extremly important for the validation to have the basic atmospheric parameter (temperature, ozone-concentration, aerosol-concentration) quasi-online.
 
2004
The instrumentation in the observatory (infrared-spectrometer, ozone- and aerosol-lidar, photometer, ozone-sondes, UV-spectrometer) shall be used for measuring aerosols and trace gases. Main concern for SAGE III validation will be ozone-measurements by means of lidar and sondes, as well as solar and star photometer and aerosol-lidar measurements. Due to the observation characteristics of SAGE III, validation data has to be collected during February/March and September/October (see http://www-sage3.larc.nasa.gov/meteor-3m/predicts/# ).  During these periods we plan intensified measurements with the photometers and the lidar systems, particularly the tropospheric lidar. Additionally ozone sondes shall be launched. We will try to combine particular ozone sonde launches from different projects (KOL 01, KOP17, this one). For the SAGE validation itself, we expect to use up to 20 extra ozone sondes. 
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Project
KOP 67
SCIAMACHY Validation
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Justus Notholt
University of Bremen
General 
information
The aim of the project is to perform solar and lunar absorption measurements of atmospheric trace gases for the valdation of the SCIAMACHY satellite
Activities at the station 2000
No aktivities because satellite has not started 
 
2002
Besides the routine observations within the NDSC it is planned to perform more intense measurements, especially during the satellite overpasses. 
 
2003
The observations in 2003 will be performed as part of the long-term validation. This requires recording spectra on a regular time scale, once or twice per week. The spectra will be transferred automatically to the AWI and the University of Bremen for analysis. 

2004
As the main validation period has ended, the observations in 2004 will be performed as part of the long-term validation. This requires recording spectra on a regular basis, once or twice a week (station engineer). Additionally, a measuring campaing examining the daily variation of the isotopic enrichment of ozone is planned. Here we aim to record 24 h – spectra. Because of the expected weather conditions, the work should be done around May. 
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Project
KOP 68
Lipid biochemical adaptation of pteropods
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Gerhardt Kattner / AWI-Bremerhaven 
Marco Böer / AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The polar pteropod Clione limacina is characterised by high quantities of lipids with ether components (1-O-alkyldiacylglycerol=DAGE) in combination with odd-chain fatty acids. It is unknown why Clione and probably other pteropods have specialised in this manner. Furthermore the precursor of the biosynthesis of these compounds is still unknown. Therefore samples of Clione limacina and itÆs only prey Limacina helicina will be collected by using plankton nets from small boats. The species will be kept in aquaria and feeding experiments with both species and food of different composition and nutritional value are planed.
Activities at the station 2002
Collecting samples of Clione limacina and Limacina from small boats to keep them in aquaria for feeding experiments.
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Project
KOP 69
Stratospheric water vapour
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. M. Maturilli
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
Water vapour is a chemically, physically, and radiatively active trace gas, and its distribution in the stratosphere determines significant climatic implications. Besides methane oxidation in the upper stratosphere, the main source of stratospheric H2O is the tropical tropopause region. Yet, the water vapour distribution in the Arctic stratosphere bares evidence for dynamical aspects on different scales. Small scale filamentary structures at the polar vortex edge link trace gas distribution to the dynamical Rossby wave activity. At the same time, the detection of water vapour profiles during the winter season reveals the large scale descending motion inside the polar vortex. Being a greenhouse gas, water vapour also affects the radiative budget of the stratosphere. In the presence of very low temperatures, the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice particles can lead to dehydration. With our high resolution measurements in the Arctic we contribute to the assessment of the water vapour distribution in the stratosphere within the frame of the EU-funded project SCOUT-O3.
Activities at the station 2002
Start of three balloons with Snow White Sensor-Package prepared by a team from the University of Nagoya and University of Kyoto. Possibly water vapour sondes from NOAA (S. Oltmans) will be started within the scope of an EU-project. This may happen earliest in autumn. 
 
2004
In polar night conditions (December 2004 to March 2005) we will perform balloon-borne measurements of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor to detect dehydration events from sedimenting polar stratospheric cloud particles and to identify filamentary structures at the polar vortex edge. 
Launch of 1 frost point balloon payload per month during December to March 2004/05.

2005
1 launch per month until March 2005.

2006
We plan to launch 1 FLASH hygrometer per month (November-March) to monitor the temporal evolution of the H2O distribution inside and/or in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex.
2007

For winter 2006/2007, a minimum of 4 FLASH-B soundings is planned, with 1 launch per month starting from November 2006. In support of IPY activities, additional soundings may complement other specific stratospheric measurements.


2008
For the IPY winter 2007/2008, a minimum of 4 regular FLASH-B soundings is planned, with 1 launch per month starting from November 2007. In addition, 2 soundings of FLASH-B in combination with the Swiss frostpoint hygrometer radiosonde SnowWhite are planned in cooperation with the German Meterological Observatory Lindenberg. For winter 2008/2009, regular soundings of 1 FLASH-B per months are envisaged so far.

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Project
KOP 70
Observations of marine aerosols with LIDAR and photometer
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Roland Neuber / AWI-Potsdam 
Dr. Andreas Herber / AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The planetary boundary layer over Ny-Ålesund is dominated by marine aerosols due to the location in the Arctic Ocean. Height and time variations of the boundary layer aerosols are examined with tropospheric lidar systems and with aerosol photometers. 
Activities at the station 2002
In July 2002 concurrent photometer measurements and LIDAR-soundings are performed to obtain the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere as well as height profiles of aerosol backscatter. The optical thickness in the lower ground layer (0 to 500m) will be measured by placing a second photometer on Zeppelin Mountain. Simultaneously water vapour profiles of the lower troposphere should be derived from the water vapour Raman channel of the LIDAR. These data sets will be compared with results from photometer and lidar measurements which will be performed temporarily in Ny-Ålesund by the Polish Academy of Science's Institute of Oceanography, Gdansk. This will conclude a ship-borne aerosol measurement campaign in June 2002. 
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Project
KOP 71
Arctic Airborne Measuring Program 2002 
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The subject is to determine the horizontal distribution of aerosol and trace gases by airborne measurements with a japanese Gulfstream III (transarctic flight), ground based measurements in Ny-Ålesund (Koldewey-Station, Rabben) and satellite measurements with SAGE II / SAGE III. The objective is to get vertical and horizontal aerosol profiles, to research the trace gase variations in the Arctic and to compare remote sensing and in situ measurements.
Activities at the station 2002
Supporting ground based measurements in Ny-Ålesund.
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Project
KOP 72
Physiological and cellular adaptation of higher plants and snow algae to the arctic environment
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Cornelius Lütz
Inst. of Botany, Univ. Innsbruck; Sternwartestr. 15, A-6020 Innsbruck
General 
information
The objective of the planned work with arctic higher plants is to study the range of adaptation of photosynthetic metabolism, of antioxidative and sun screen compounds in a cold and re- duced UV-B climate in comparison of data already raised from high alpine plants, which live partially under stronger cold and under different light regimes, especially higher UV-B. Fur- ther, the ultrastructure of leaf cells will be studied to clear, whether adaptations found in some high alpine plants occur similarly in arctic plants, and to connect such cytological results with metabolic functions. An additional comparison will be made with snow algae from Svalbard compared to those harvested on high alpine snow fields. It is the advantage of the planned work, that a number of investigations ranging from ultrastructural studies over different aspects of photosynthesis to assays of UV-B sensitive compounds and antioxidants will be conducted mostly with measurements and sample collection in the field during the same experimental day at one place. Therefore we expect a good connection of the data raised, back to the plant system and expect a much broader description of vitality and adaptation under the current conditions. 
Activities at the station 2002
The research activities planned include a) to a large extent field experiments, continued with mechanistic laboratory studies, and, if plant transport is possible: b) exposure of plants (Dryas, Salix, Carex, Ranunculus) to an accurate simulation of different UV-B regimes under the simulated climate of the growth site (at the GSF Research Centre, Munich), again followed by similar physiological studies as is described below. 
As study objects for Koldewey the following higher plants are planned, depending on the field situation to find enough material: Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris, Ranunculus glacialis, Oxyria digyna, Cerastium alpinum. Snow algae (primarily Chamydomonas nivalis) will be mainly collected for later studies in the lab at Innsbruck. The selection of these species is based on our research experience with the species/families growing in the High Alps. 
List of activities for the campaign at Koldewey area: 

1. The field of photosynthesis is of prime importance, because plant life depends on the activity of photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates and additional energy for anaple-rotic or defence metabolism. Therefore chlorophylls, carotenoids as well as photosynthetic activity will be estimated. Oxygen production/consumption measurements will be done in the field or in the station. 
2. An exact determination of the protective role of xanthophylls and radical scavengers like alpha-tocopherol in leaves from field samples is required to find possible limits of adaptation. Assay of pigments and tocopherol will be performed on small extract volumes prepared for long stability and subjected to HPLC in Innsbruck. 
3. Fluorescence induction measurements (non-destructive) for the detection of fine changes in the function of the photosynthetic apparatus in the field will also be performed. 
4. Methanolic extracts from field samples will give information on general flavonoid composition, and via the same samples separated by HPLC later in the lab, and b) allow an estimation of general antioxidant activity via kinetic assay of the stable radical DPPH. 
5. Most challenging is the preparation of samples for ultrastructural studies with chemical fixation at the sample`s growth site. Final processing to embedded specimens can be done in the station. 

The whole program of activities has been tested for several years under high alpine field and small laboratory conditions. Using the present laboratory facilities at 
Koldewey, there should not any difficulty to run the programme as it is planned, if weather conditions allow field work. 
 
2004
This compilation of planned activities is similar to the activities described for 2002 and changed according to newer plans based on the results from our first research visit: 
The research activities include a) to a large extent field experiments, b) continued with mechanistic laboratory studies, and c) the preparation of plant material for extended studies at the home university. 
We want to find out, whether adaptations found in some alpine plants and alpine snow algae occur similarly in arctic forms. In case of marine algae we want to continue an existing coop-eration to describe UV-effects on plant ultrastructure to connect such cytological results with metabolic functions. 
It is the advantage of the work planned for 2004, that most investigations ranging from ultra-structural studies over different aspects of photosynthesis to assays of UV-B sensitive com-pounds and antioxidants have already successfully been performed during the working period in July 2002 in the Kongsfjord area.

2005
This compilation of planned activities is similar to the activities described for 2002/2004 and changed according to newer plans based on the results from our previous research visits:
The research activities include a) to a large extent field experiments, b) continued with mechanistic laboratory studies at the Koldewey station, and c) the preparation of plant material for extended studies at the home university.

2006
This compilation of planned activities is similar to the activities described for 2002/2004/2005 and changed according to newer plans based on the results from our previous research visits:
The research activities include a) to a large extent field experiments, b) continued with mecha-nistic laboratory studies at the Koldewey station, and c) the preparation of plant material for extended studies at the home university.
As study objects for Svalbard, the following organisms are chosen on the basis of our previous work: Different species of snow algae (primarily Chlamydomonas nivalis), higher plants: Dryas octopetala, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Oxyria digyna, and Papaver dahlianum. In case of ultrastructural studies with marine algae, we will continue to cooperate with Prof. Ch. Wienckes`s group at Koldewey and this planning of combined experiments is still ongoing.

2007
  • To investigate special ultrastructure of leaf cells from selected high arctic plants
  • To describe marine algae ultrastructure after different UV-treatments according to the program of the group of Ch. Wiencke
  • To isolate proteins from leaves and cell organelles for following antifreeze proteins and respiratory enzymes
  • To measure antioxidant capacity and pigments in selected plants to compare with alpine plants

2008
Earlier test samples from the ice surface of the 'Midre Lovenbreen' glacier at Svalbard, situated south-eastern from Ny Alesund, revealed that it is inhabited by a specialized algal flora, mainly consisting of the cryophilic species Ancylonema nordenskioeldii (Zygnemaphyceae, Chlorophyta).
The close proximity to the AWI polar station enables us to do a close investigation of the glacier surface and evaluation the local occurrence and abundance of this extremophilic organism. This includes sampling on the glacier in combination with a filed microscope. Because the algal cells hardly cause a pink to purple colouration of the (they are mainly covered by greyish 'dirt like' cryoconite material), it is not easy to find the populations in the field. Local places of high and clean occurrence have to be found by microscopy. There, field measurements will be undertaken, including surface temperature, nitrogen/nutrient content of the melt water and chlorophyll fluorescence of algae. Further material will be brought to the lab at Ny Alesund for measuring photosynthesis and for fixation for electron microscopy.
There had been no investigations on Ancylonema nordenskioeldii for decades and this will be the first physiological approach ever to describe the ecological and cellular adaptation of this very specialized organism to its harsh habitat.

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Project
KOP 73
Photochemical and physical processes in surface snow
Responsible 
scientist
Hans-Werner Jacobi
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Coupled photochemical and physical processes that occur within the surface of the snow pack affect the composition and oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere and the distribution and concentration of chemical species in the snow pack. Part of this hypothesis will be tested in a series of experiments.  Addressing the impact on atmospheric composition requires determination of fluxes of important gases such as H2O2, HCHO, and O3.  Since an important aspect of the hypothesis is that photochemistry in the firn contributes to uptake and release of important gases, a central activity will involve experiments designed to probe the photochemistry in the snow pack condensed phase and in the interstitial air. 
Activities at the station 2002
A field site will be established, where continuous measurements of the atmospheric composition can be performed. Flux determination shall be performed using a Eddy-Korrelation technique. Snow samples will be taken and analysed in the lab. 
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Project
KOP 74
SOGE-FTIR 
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Justus Notholt
University of Bremen
General 
information
Aim of the project is to develop a cost-effective long-term European observation system for halocarbons and to predict and assess impacts of the halocarbons on the climate and on the ozone layer. 
Activities at the station 2002
Beside the routine observations within the NDSC it is planned to perform FTIR absorption measurements of CFCs (e.g. SF6, CCl2F2, CHF2Cl) and related species on much more observation days. 

2003
In 2003 we will concentrate on measurements and analysis of three CFC’s: CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-22. This requires to consider the interfering gases, mainly water, in the correct way. During intense campaigns the observations are performed by the project scientist. For the rest of the year the spectra are recorded within the NDSC activities by the NDSC-engineer at the station typically once per week.
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Project
KOP 75
BIRD satellite validation
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Klaus Brieß 
DLR, Institut für Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin
General 
information

Activities at the station 2002

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Project
KOP 76
The surface energy budget and its impact on superimposed ice formation (SEBISUP)
Responsible 
scientist
Marcel Nicolaus
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
During the spring/summer transition, sea ice and snow properties change considerably in response to warming and the eventual reversal of temperature gradients within the snow and ice. Snow melt water percolates down towards the colder snow/ice interface, where it refreezes to form superimposed ice. On sea ice this process occurs probably longer and more intensive than on land, because throughout the summer the ice and underlying seawater is always colder than the snow. In Antarctica superimposed ice may actually form layers of some decimeters in thickness. 
The objective of this study is to investigate the main processes and boundary conditions for superimposed ice formation, in recognition of its importance for Antarctic sea ice, and its possible importance for Arctic sea ice in case of environmental changes due to future climate change. This will be performed by means of modeling as well as by combined measurements of the temporal evolution of snow and ice properties and the energy budget. 
Activities at the station 2002
The field study comprises daily measurements of ice and snow properties and meteorological boundary conditions. Snow and ice temperature, salinity, grain size, density, wetness, and thickness will be determined on the fast ice. At the sampling site, radiative and turbulent fluxes will be recorded continuously to calculate the surface energy balance. The results of the field study will be used to develop and validate a numerical model of snow and ice processes at the onset of summer melt. 

2003
The field study comprises of daily simultaneous measurements of ice and snow properties and of the meteorological boundary conditions. 
Snow temperature, grain size, density, wetness, snow depth and water equivalent will be determined at selected snow pits on the fast ice on a daily basis. 
The radiometric measurements at the sampling site consist of incoming and reflected short-wave solar radiation measured with pyranometers, as well as down- and upward long-wave radiation measured with pyrgeometers. 
Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and wind direction are obtained by an Automatic Weather Station (AWS). Those data will be supplemented by visual observations regarding cloud coverage and further characteristic conditions. The meteorological measurements should be performed continuously to assess the diurnal cycle and any events which could cause snow metamorphism.
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Project
KOP 77
Remote sensing of the radiative properties of arctic aerosols at solar and thermal infrared wavelengths and retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties.
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Michael Smith
The School of the Environment, University of Leeds
General
information
The current scientific knowledge does not allow estimating accurately the surface radiative forcing caused by tropospheric aerosols and their influence on the evolution of the EarthÆs climate. The radiative forcing depends on the optical properties of the aerosols at solar and thermal infrared wavelengths. These optical properties depend, in turn, on the chemical composition and size of the aerosols. Remote sensing with passive radiation sensors operating in the above-mentioned spectral ranges allows to measure the optical properties of the aerosols and to characterise their temporal variability. These data are needed for regional climate simulations of the Arctic, particularly for delineating the impact of the "Arctic haze" phenomenon.
Activities at the station 2002
In this project, a synergetic effort will be made to obtain information about the radiative and microphysical properties of springtime arctic aerosols. Therefore, a polarisation-spectrometer for the solar spectral range, which is currently developed at the Free University of Berlin as a variant of the FUBISS spectrometer, will be operated from the surface in coincidence with the Fourier Transform InfraRed-spectrometer installed at Ny-Ålesund by the AWI. The former instrument measures the intensity and polarisation of the scattered solar radiation from the visible to the near-infrared. The latter measures the radiation emitted by the Atmosphere itself in the thermal infrared window region. Together, they thus provide a wealth of information about the aerosol optical properties at the interesting wavelengths (spectral optical depth, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor of the phase function), which will allow inferring the aerosol microphysical properties. 
Complementary measurements of the aerosol microphysical properties will be provided by an aerosol volatility analyser, which is maintained by the University of Leeds and will also be brought to Ny-Ålesund. This instrument comprises a fast response scanning volatility system and an optical particle counter. From the thermal response of the aerosol number and the change in the size distribution conclusions can be inferred about the chemical composition and the state of mixing of aerosols as a function of size.
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Project
KOP 78
Permafrost drainage
Responsible 
scientist
 Georg Schwamborn
AWI-Potsdam
General 
information
Estimates of glacial run-off characteristics and mass transfer may relate to subsurface construction of glacial or periglacial deposits, their geologic materials, their thickness and geometric settings, their changeability from frozen to unfrozen states through the season. However, these properties are not fully accounted for in terms of calculating system reactions to regional or global warming trends. Among these systems, the drainage basin of the Austre Lovenbreen (10 km2) has been selected in this project to be an observatory of streamflow dynamics in western Spitsbergen.
To determine subsurface meltwater conduits the proposed research will depict the spatial structure of 1. the en-, 2. the sub-glacial and 3. the periglacial hydrological system by using complementary geophysical and sedimentological techniques. These are ground-penetrating radar, geoelectrics, and sediment analysis for verification of geophysical data sets. In cooperation with THÉMA, Besançon, the assessed conditions of a polythermal glacier´s hydrological pathway will be integral part of eventual mass calculations.

Activities at the station 2002
We will select a sedimentary permafrost site in the Ny-Ålesund area, which is built up of silty to sandy alluvial or glaciofluvial deposits thereby permitting good GPR 
signal penetration. We will collect orthogonal 2-D GPR profiles, which later can be combined to create a 3-D GPR data set. At a location within the profiling grid 
where prominent subsurface reflections are recorded one shallow core (5-10 m in length) will be recovered for complementary sediment studies.
2006
The following datasets will be collected at Austre Lovenbreen glacier snout area and glacier forefield sediments.
1. In spring a measuring grid of geophysical profiles will be obtained, which includes lines of
- ground-penetrating radar lines (GPR),
- capacity-coupled resistivity (CCR).
2. In autumn the field campaigne will be completed by
- sedimentological description and sampling of periglacial deposits in front of the glacier snout.

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Project
KOP 80
Measurements of atmospheric mercury species during Arctic springtime 

(As a sub-part of the International Project: Input of atmospheric mercury to the Arctic ecosystems – Impact of Arctic springtime depletion events)  

Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Ralf Ebinghaus
GKSS Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Institut für Küstenforschung / Physikalische und Chemische Analytik
General 
information
Mercury and many of its compounds behave exceptionally in the environment due to their volatility and capability for methylation, in contrast with most of the other heavy metals. Long-range atmospheric transport of mercury, its transformation to more toxic methylmercury compounds, the ability to photochemical reactions and their bioaccumulation in the aquatic foodchain have made it to a subject of global research activities even in polar regions. 
At the beginning of polar spring the phenomenon of mercury depletion events (MDEs) has been discovered in the high Canadian Arctic a few years ago. Simultaneously with ground level ozone concentrations, mercury concentrations drop down to levels below the background values. As a chemical element mercury cannot simply decomposed (like ozone for example) but can be converted into species that are removed from the atmosphere by deposition processes. 
In 2001, researchers of GKSS Research Centre, Alfred Wegener Institute and the University of Jena have completed the first annual time series of atmospheric mercury concentration measurements at the German Neumayer Station and have reported that MDEs do also occur in the Antarctic. 
It can be assumed that as a result of a complex series of atmospheric reactions enhanced deposition fluxes of mercury into the polar coastal ecosystem occurs during springtime. This enhanced deposition flux can be an important link for the understanding of mercury contamination and bioaccumulation in the Arctic ecosystems. 
According to the proposed mechanism, heterogeneous reactions occurring at the interface of sea salt aerosols lead to the oxidation of elemental mercury in the troposphere. Sea salt aerosols contain high concentrations of chloride or bromide ions, which can react to form gaseous halogen radicals in the presence of light. The radicals react photochemically with ozone, forming halogen oxides (BrO or ClO), which, in turn, oxidize elemental mercury to Hg(II). Either way, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) is formed, which researchers believe could be HgO, HgBr2, and / or HgCl2. 
Recent investigations support the theory that reactive bromine, which destroys ozone and can oxidize elemental mercury in a subsequent reaction, is released from sea salt surfaces, which are provided either by sea ice surfaces or by uptake of sea salt aerosols. BrO vertical column densities over the Antarctic, obtained from the satellite-based GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) instrument, have revealed, that most of the sea ice where enhanced BrO concentrations are found is located north of Neumayer station at lower latitudes and can cover the ocean up to 55oS. Therefore, the depletion of atmospheric mercury during Antarctic springtime must be seen as a phenomenon which is not restricted to the Antarctic continent but also to the surrounding ocean. 

The major goal of the process study between April 15 and May 15, 2003 is to obtain quantified information on reaction path-ways, products and net deposition of mercury during Arctic sunrise. 
http://coast.gkss.de/aos/research.html

Activities at the station 2003
Simultaneous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate-phase mercury (PPM) will be carried out between April 15 and May 15, 2003. GEM and RGM will be measured on-line with a time resolution of 15 minutes or 1 hour respectively. Changes in the relative concentration ratio of these species from the pre-depletion towards the depletion period will provide a better insight in the reaction pathways and the resulting products. 
Similar measurements will be carried out by other groups at the Zeppelin Station. Comparison of the results will give information on the role of the marine boundary layer on the  atmospheric chemistry of mercury, since Zeppelin Station is located about 450 m a.s.l. , whereas Koldewey is almost at sea level and also closer to the coast line.
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Project
KOP 81
Taxonomic and ecologic investigations on distinct kinds of polychaets and meiofauna of svalbard
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Günter Arlt
University of Rostock
General 
information
In the late seventies, ELLIOTT and KINGSTON (1987) discovered a polychaetous annelid in various North Sea estuaries that had previously been found only in North American estuaries. Further specimens of what appeared to be the same species were found in the mid-eighties in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea (BICK and BURCKHARDT, 1989). The distribution of these events in time and space led to the assumption that a North American species had immigrated to the North Sea and then extended its range of distribution to the Baltic. Within several years this species became one of the most dominant species in these estuaries. Identification of the immigrant was beset with problems from the start. It was identified as M. wireni AUGENER, 1913 or as M. viridis (VERRILL, 1873). 
It was the population genetic studies by BASTROP et al. (1995) and ROEHNER et al. (1996a, b) that showed the presence of genetically distinct forms in the North and Baltic Sea as well as in different regions of the north eastern coast of America. The morphological studies undertaken against this background allowed a good discrimination between these species (BICK & ZETTLER,  1997). 

Though, all authors dealing with the two species immigrated into the European estuaries were unable to name these species. The main reasons for this uncertainty are: 
- species identification is difficult, because diagnostic characters vary with growth (BICK, 1995), 
- the geographical distribution of Marenzelleria species is far from clear, 
- type material no longer exists or it is in poor condition (BICK & ZETTLER, 1997). 
Specimens of the type species of the genus, Marenzelleria wireni, were recorded from the Arctic region, Franz-Joseph Land and Spitzbergen (WIREN, 1883 and von MARENZELLER, 1892). As mentioned above, these specimens deposited in the Zoologisches Museum Hamburg and the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm are in poor condition. As far as we know further material from these regions does not exist. In order to eliminate the taxonomic uncertainty it is necessary to investigate morphologically and genetically specimens from the type locality. 

Activities at the station 2003
We intend to collect Marenzelleria specimens from Spitzbergen by means of corer, grab, dredge, plankton net or by digging. After sieving, specimens will be fixed in ethanol (for genetic studies), formalin (morphological studies) or glutaraldehyde (SEM studies). 
Further polychaetes, e.g. specimens of the genus Spio, will be collected, to start taxonomic investigations on some other problematical polychaetous groups. 

The stay at the Koldewey Station will also be used for a faunistic analysis of the littoral meiofauna. The investigation will especially focus on the harpacticoid copepods. The results obtained are intended to be a basis for further studies dealing with the problem of recolonization of areas which were covered by ice over a long period of time. This is insofar of interest since many of the benthic meiofauna members are no swimmers and don’t have any pelagic larvae. If species are found that also occur in the Baltic or North Sea, their different functional position in the environments concerned will be studied. 

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Project
KOP 82
Macroalgal secondary metabolites from Arctic waters
Responsible 
scientist
PD Dr. Matthias Köck
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The aim of this project is to investigate natural products from polar macroalgae. As Arctic waters represent an extreme habitat, formation of secondary metabolites is limited - besides other factors - by light conditions. Therefore, the influence of light, particularly different photon fluence rates and UV radiation, on secondary metabolism and on regulation of associated genes will be studied. A cooperation with Stephan Kremb (project KOL 06) is planned
Activities at the station 2002
Sampling of macroalgae by research divers. Freeze preservation of macroalgal samples for studies in the AWI laboratories at Bremerhaven. 
 
2003
  • Collections of macroalgae to investigate the influence of the season (July 2003 compared to August 2002)
  • Cultivation of selected algae in the laboratory under extreme photon fluence rates and under UV-radiation
  • Cultivation of selected algae in different depths in the Kongsfjorden
  • Extraction of the algal samples, isolation of RNA and secondary metabolites for further investigation in the AWI laboratories at Bremerhaven
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Project
KOP 83
Dynamics of benthic bivalve communities in polar environments
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Wolf E. Arntz
Dr. Jürgen Laudien
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
Description of parameters of the population dynamics of polar bivalve communities, first year: growth and reproductive cycle of the dominant Greenland cockles (Serripes groenlandicus)
Activities at the station 2003
Greenland cockles (Serripes groenlandicus) dominate the soft bottom communities. Therefore we chose this clam for detailed studies of one organism having presumably a dominant affect on soft sediment succession. It is planned that 30 individuals will be sampled monthly over a years’ period. Since there is no diving team available throughout the year bivalves will be sampled, marked with the help of two parallel sanding discs fixed to a handhold electric driller and released in round cages (app. 40 cm in diameter). These cages will be produced in the AWI workshop in advance and in-stalled under the sediment surface in front of the sheet piling of the harbour, at 8 meter depth that they will not interfere with the docking ships. Cages will be fixed to a rope, which will be installed on the ground, turned around on a clamp at the lower end of the sheet piling and fixed on the surface. Each month one cage will be lifted and clams fixed in formalin for further investigations (growth, reproductive cycle). 

At the laboratory in Bremerhaven, cockles will be measured to the lower mm and growth increments calculated. These parameters will be used to establish a von Bertalanffy growth function. Additionally acetat peels will be produced. The results will be needed for further investigations and age estimates from free living cockles for future campaigns. The reproductive cycle of Serripes groenlandicus will be analysed using histological methods. 

2004
About 10 individuals of Serripes groenlandicuswill be sampled monthly over a year`s period. Since there is no scientific diving team available throughout the year bivalves will be sampled, marked with the help of two parallel sanding discs fixed to a handhold electric driller and released in stainless steel cages. In 2003 these cages were already installed under the sediment surface in northern direction of the sheet piling of the harbour, at app. 10-meter depth that they will not interfere with the docking ships. Cages were fixed to a rope, which has been installed on the ground, turned around on a ground weight at the lower end of the sheet piling and fixed at the surface. Each month one cage will be lifted and cockles be frozen (-80°C) for further investigations (growth, reproductive cycle).

2005
About 10 Greenland cockles will be sampled monthly over a year’s period (August 2004 – August 2005). Since there is no scientific diving team available throughout the year bivalves were and will be sampled, marked with the help of two parallel sanding discs fixed to a handhold electric driller and released in stainless steel cages. These cages were installed under the sediment surface in northern direction of the sheet piling of the harbour, at app. 10meter depth not to interfere with the docking ships. Cages were fixed to a rope, which has been installed on the ground, turned around on a ground weight at the lower end of the sheet piling or to underwater buoys. Each month one cage has been and will be lifted and cockles be frozen (-80°C) for further investigations (growth, reproductive cycle, Laudien et al 2003). According to the results obtained during the next months we may have to reinstall some of the cages in order to fill gaps should we not be able to get animals of each month back. Further we will sample app. 300 individuals in an area of higher abundances (Forlandsundet) and at Brandal where many young individuals were found in 2004. Cockles will be marked and released in the area north of the harbour. These cockles should be resampled in 2006 in order to get results on growth in the natural environment. Additionally temperature data and salinity data will be logged with the help of a transistor chain already installed in 2004. This will give us an opportunity to correlate growth with environmental parameters

2006
Greenland cockles (Serripes groenlandicus) were chosen for detailed growth studies because this species has presumably a dominant effect on soft sediment succession and because we will be able to relate the findings to the already obtained results on macro growth. About 400 juveniles will be collected at Brandal (8-10m depth) and marked with fluorescent stain. Three staining chemicals (Calcein, Alizarine and Strontium chloride) and two concentrations will be tested (in accordance with our preliminary research on other bivalves) in order to determine the most suitable for microscopical observations of growth bands.

After staining, the animals will be released in an enclosure, which will be installed north-west of the harbour area. Pieces of 50 cm high and 1.5m long fence connected to metal frames will allow handling under water. The cockles will be resampled after 1, 2, 3 weeks and in 2007 in order to get results on growth in the natural environment.

Depending on our results obtained during the next months we may have to reinstall some of the cages as we did to the last year in order to fill gaps or to obtain missing replicates during the reproductive period.

Additionally temperature data and salinity data will be logged with the help of a transistor chain reinstalled in 2005. This will give us an opportunity to correlate microgrowth with environmental parameters.

2007

2006 we found a newly settled juvenile population of Greenland cockles (Serripes groenlandicus) off the Corbel station. 2007 this population will be sampled quantitatively (replicates along a transect) using a SCUBA operated corer. Each individual cockle in the sample will be measured (anterior ? posterior shell length) to the lower 0.1mm with vernier calipers. After measurements, cockles will be released in the habitat with the exception of a sub-sample. The sub-sample will be used to determine ash free dry mass (AFDM). Production will be estimated from the length frequency diagram and the biomass data by monitoring the new population during the coming years.

The previously (2004 until now) achieved knowledge between S. groenlandicus and its effecting environmental factors shall now be applied to know the impact on the cockle by the freshwater runoff from the surrounding glaciers. Hereby S. groenlandicus will be employed as a biological temperature and salinity proxy along a perpendicular gradient of ever increasing sediment and freshwater load towards the glacial front. Since this type of investigation only requires low numbers of samples the failure rate is accordingly low in spite of potential hazards by iceberg scouring. Nevertheless the respective individuals shall be protected by cages, already used earlier in this project and obsoleted in Bremerhaven. The cages will be filled with sediment, include 15 individual physically marked juvenile S. groenlandicus (appr. 3cm anterior ? posterior shell length) and will be installed along a gradient of freshwater impact from a glacier towards the mouth of the fjord. Cages will be marked and recovered at the end of the season 2007. Shell analyses will be carried out in Bremerhaven. The analysis will focus on stable oxygen 18O and carbon 13C isotopes following Khim (2001). As Khim et al. (2003) and Simstich (2005) pointed out, freshwater discharge has a significant effect on bivalve physiology and growth rate. Therefore the clam has the ability to serve as a temperature proxy since increased air temperatures raise the freshwater discharge from the glaciers and thus salinity and 18O concentrations in the water column. The overall goal is to archive a longterm temperature reconstruction with a S. groenlandicus proxy for the Kongsfjorden area.

Obviously water samples have to be analyzed for the concentrations of 18O as well. As soon as these data are available they will be applied to historical valves and even to fossil records if available. In conjunction with glacier development data it shall then be possible to develop a comprehensive reconstruction of the sea surface temperatures in Kongsfjorden. This in turn provides valuable background information for future research and the understanding of the local ecosystem in times of changing climate.

2008
Shell growth of Serripes groenlandicus as a biological temperature and salinity proxy; production estimates

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Project
KOP 85
Investigation of ice caves on Brøggerhalvøya in order to reconstruct Holocene Glacier Recessions
Responsible 
scientist
Anne Hormes
Angströmlaboratory, Uppsala, Schweden
General 
information
In April 2004 continuation of the fieldwork, which was carried out in March and 
September 2003, is planned. The investigation focuses on glaciers of Svalbard 
and their responses on climatic changes during the Holocene period. The 
objective of this study is to find organic material within ice caves formed by 
subglacial meltwater streams. Radiocarbon dates of specified organic material 
like mosses will provide an absolute chronology of glacier recessions with 
considerable smaller glacier termini than present in Svalbard. In September 2003 
several moulins formed by supraglacial meltwater streams have been marked by 
GPS and traditional methods on Brøggerhalvøya. Therefore, in April 2004 five ice 
caves on Austre Brøggerbreen, two ice caves on Midtre Løvenbreen and one ice 
cave on Pedersenbreen will be investigated.
Activities at the station 2004
The  marked ice caves of Austre Brøggerbreen, Midtre Løvenbreen and Pedersenbreen will be investigated with alpine methods to reach the baseline of the glaciers. There it will be searcvhed for some organic material in situ. In march of 2003 one cave in Austre Brøggerbreen and two in Midtre Løvenbreen have been investigated.
In septemer 2004 the participation at “VI International Symposium on Glacier Caves and Cryokarst 
in Polar and High Mountain Regions” is planed, also some GPS maesurements and markings of Moulins at Austre Brøggerbreen, Midtre Løvenbreen and Pedersenbreen.
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Project
KOP 86
Ground-based support during ASTAR-2004
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information
The Arctic is a sensitive environment where aerosol radiative properties and aerosol-cloud interactions with respect to natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources have been investigated previously. Past experiments conducted over the last 40 years have mainly focused on the Arctic Haze phenomenon that occurs during late winter and spring. Optical properties of the aerosol during these events have been studied within projects such as the AGASP program  or ASTAR  . 
The recent International Arctic Ocean Expeditions, using the Swedish icebreaker Odin, provided the most detailed information on aerosol in the central European Arctic. However, these observations, were limited to the atmospheric boundary layer during the clean summer season. None of the past experiments so far had the capability to produce an over-determined set of observations of aerosol radiative properties. To assess the present and future impact on the Arctic climate by changes in the aerosol properties, it is requested to have an internal consistency between observed and simulated aerosol and cloud properties. 
For the Arctic, the main focus of the project is to provide an observational over-determined data set, which is necessary to improve the assessment of the aerosol direct and indirect effects on the Arctic radiative balance. This will be achieved by utilizing unique aircraft instrumental payloads, addressing both aerosol and cloud measurements, combined with ground-based and satellite observations and by using appropriate modeling tools. Measurements will be performed during periods of Arctic Haze as well as during the transition to the clean Arctic summer conditions. 
Activities at the station 2004
The scientific objectives of the Arctic campaigns are focused on two major issues: 

Progress from previous year(s): 
The activity based on the airborne measurements in the vicinity of Svalbard in March and April 2000 (ASTAR: Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and Radiation) and the March 2002 campaign (AAMP: Arctic Airborne Measuring Campaign). 

Description for planned research stay: 
For the Arctic, the main focus of the project is to provide an observational over-determined data set, which is necessary to improve the assessment of the aerosol direct and indirect effects on the Arctic radiative balance. This will be achieved by utilizing unique aircraft instrumental payloads, addressing both aerosol and cloud measurements, combined with ground-based (Ny-Ålesund) and satellite observations and by using appropriate modeling tools. Measurements will be performed during periods of Arctic Haze (April 2005) as well as during the transition to the clean Arctic summer conditions (May/June 2004). 
The program will focus on both aerosol (POLAR 4) and cloud micro-physical and optical properties (POLAR 2). The operation base for the both AWI aircraft’s is Longyearbyen during 10th May and 17th June 2004.

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Project
KOP 88
Die Rolle von Lipiden in der planktonischen Nahrungskette polarer Kleinstgewässer unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses ultravioletter Strahlung
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Klaus Humbeck
Dr. Iris Zellmer
Universität Halle
General 
information
Plankton of shallow polar freshwater water bodies is exposed to increasing levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to the limited water depth. Daphnia (Crustacea, waterflea) and algae are common representatives of the food chain in these water bodies. Daphnia almost exclusively use lipids for energy storage, which they obtain from their food (mainly algae). Therefore, Daphnia and algae are closely linked to each other. Preliminary experiments on the UV-induced damage in phyto- and zooplankton point to lipids as one of the key players. With this application we want to identify how algae specific lipids and fatty acids (FA) are modified by UVR. Similarly, we want to examine the equivalent correlations between lipids, FA and Daphnia after UVR treatment. In a final step, we want to test the effect of UVR-treated algae on the UV-tolerance of Daphnia. This shall enable us to estimate the effect of solar UVR on the freshwater plankton community in polar ponds. 
Daphnia samples from Arctic, sub-Arctic and high altitude ponds shall verify the results and demonstrated, whether our results are reflected on a common base in polar freshwater systems.
Activities at the station 2004
At Spitzbergen samples of Daphnia from numerous ponds and shallow lakes shall be collected. These samples shall be analysed with respect to lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition. Water quality of the selected water bodies shall differ with respect to DOC-content thus providing a range of different UV-transmittances and creating different underwater light regimes. The UV-specific transmission shall be measured with a portable underwater UV-meter in the different ponds. In addition, water samples shall be taken from each of the sampled ponds for further analysis of water chemistry and DOC. Also phytoplankton will be sampled from all of the ponds. These samples will be analysed for lipid and fatty acid composition. This shall enable us to follow lipids in the food chain from algae to Daphnia and to estimate the relation between DOC, UV-transmittance and the lipid composition in plankton communities in polar ponds. 
In 2003 extensive sampling of sub-Arctic ponds was conducted in the vicinity of Kilpisjärvi (Finland). These samples shall serve as a reference to those to be collected at Spitzbergen.
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Project
KOP 89
Physiological acclimation of Arctic macroalgae along vertical stress gradients
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Kai Bischof 
Universität Kiel 
General 
information
The project focus is on photosynthetic responses of Arctic macroalgae to changing abiotic conditions. Key species along the shoreline of Kongsfjorden will be studied for the combined effects of increased ultraviolet radiation and seawater temperature, according to scenarios of climate change. The addressed changes in physico-chemical conditions will exert hitherto unknown effects on macroalgal physiology. We will compare responses of specimens collected along depth gradients, by exposing them in temperature controlled mesocosm systems, shielded with filter foils or additionally equipped with UV-fluorescent tubes. We will conduct in situ-measurements of photosynthetic performance and conserve algae for later physiological analysis in the laboratory. These surveys will include changes in pigment composition including the regulatory xanthophyll cycle, as an important protection system in the response to high light stress, induction of stress (heat shock) proteins, DNA damage and the generation of reactive oxygen species. Results will allow new insights in the reaction of species physiology upon environmental changes. In combination with datasets from physical oceanography it will be possible to draw conclusions on the development of macroalgal communities in response to climate change. 
Activities at the station 2004
3 mesocosm (plastic bins approx. 200 x 60 x 30 cm) will be installed next to the Nansen-Lab. Fresh seawater will be pumped into these bins, the temperature will be thermostat-controlled. Using different filter-foils sampled algae from Kongsfjorden will be exposed in the mesocosm with different wavelengthranges of solar radiation (white light, UV-A, UV-B). Meanwhile the watertemperaure will be raised. In this way combined effects of UV-radiation and temperature-stress on the photosynthesis of algae shall be tested. In the course of the experiment samples for following laboratory-analysis will be taken, deepfrozen with liquid nitrogen and taken to the homelaboratory on dry ice.
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Project
KOP 90
Food in the Arctic pelagic system, its role in the diet of filter feeders, and fertili-sation by exudates: an experiment in situ
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Wolf E. Arntz
Dr. Jürgen Laudien
AWI-Bremerhaven
General 
information
The role of different food items of the arctic pelagic system in the diet of selected suspension feeders and in return the fertilization effect through exudates will be evaluated from in situ feeding experiments with selected filter-feeders. A modified form of a recently introduced “semi-closed” recirculating system for measuring chemical fluxes and designed to be handled by SCUBA divers will be used. 
The time required to detect changes in the concentration of food sources will be determined by exam-ining the Chlorophyll a concentration within chambers with and without test animals over a period of 3 hours at 30 minutes intervals. Water samples will be cooled, transported to the laboratory immediately and thereafter filtered through a 100µm mesh in order to prevent large particles to bias the analyses. Water samples will be preserved and deep-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Capture rates of the tested animals will be calculated using the variation in the concentration levels of bacteria, nanoflagellates, ciliates, dinoflafellates, diatoms, Chorophyll a and total particulate organic carbon/nitrogen as well as nutrients in the water samples in Bremerhaven and Barcelona. Corrections will be made for the net growth rates and net increasing rates during the experiments as revealed by the control chamber. Ingestion rates will be estimated from the calculated clearance rates and the mean prey concentration value for each prey type during the experiments.
Activities at the station 2004
The role of zooplankton as prey of passive suspension feeders has been demonstrated in many tem-perate and tropical regions, but the value of trophically rich prey as is the zoo-plankton to cover the food demand of benthic suspension feeders is a subject not yet well studied. Where zooplankton prey in corals is frequent it could be a relevant component of coral trophic balance, also in predominantly autotrophic species Earlier studies that quantified the diet of some species of zooplanktivorous suspension feeders, such as cni-darians, postulated an important role of mixed diets in benthic suspension feeders. The capture of occasional zooplankton prey has been demonstrated as a decisive factor to cover the energy balance in temperate benthic suspension feeders. Thus, in order to study variation in the diet of Gersemia rubiformis colonies will be sampled at least three times during the season 2004. Each sample will consist of one apical fragment collected from five randomly selected colonies of the popu-lation and immediately fixed in 10% formalin in seawater. Ten polyps of each fragment will be dis-sected under a binocular microscope in order to examine the stomach contents.
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Project
KOP 91
UV effects on bacteria
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. A. Buma
University of Groningen
General 
information

Topic / goals

  1. To investigate genetic and metabolic diversity in marine arctic bacterial communities.
  2. To investigate genetic and metabolic differences in free living and satellite (attached to microalgae) bacterial consortia.
  3. To investigate the role of light quantity and light quality (in particular UVR) on bacterial community composition and metabolic activity, both in the free living and satellite fractions.
  4. To compare genetic diversity and irradiance responses of bacterial communities in Antarctic and Arctic regions.
Activities at the station 2005
Three series of experiments at Koldewey over a total field period of 5-6 weeks. Each experimental series will comprise of a matrix of 9 irradiance conditions, varying the light quality (PAR only, PAR+UVAR, PAR+UVAR+UVBR, using appropriate cut-off filters) and the light quantity (from 90% to 30% irradiation levels, using neutral density screeens). The minicosm bottles (about 12L) would thereby differ in UVR regimes but also in total irradiance intensity. Newly designed UV transmissive PMMA bottles and incubating systems are presently being manufactured in our workshop (November 2004) and will be tested well in advance of the field campaign. These systems will allow for sufficient irradiance control and quantification. Experimental set-ups would be placed outside, in order to allow for natural sunlight exposure, and consist of 3 incubating systems (appr. length 100 cm, width 100 cm, height 30 cm), to be cooled with ambient sea water or a cryostat (which we could bring), each containing 3 experimental bottles (appr. 12 L each). Total incubation periods will be 10 days, during which irradiance induced changes in the microalgeal and bacterial composition can realistically be expected. Samples will be filtered and fractionated, as done before, and stored frozen at -80º. Samples will be analyzed upon return at the University of Goningen (DGGE analysis of bacterial and eukaryote community composition; sequencing and eventually recultivation of samples). During the proposed field campaign we propose to additionally, next to the DGGE and sequence analysis, perform FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation) and MICRO-CARD-FISH in order to determine which strains are active within the community. We herewith aim at stepping beyond the descriptive level of microbial communities and entering the functional level within these communities. Finally, samples will be taken for analyses of UVBR and oxidative stress measurement in the home laboratory (DNA damage, SOD).
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Project
KOP 92
Lipids in arctic food chain
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. M. Graeve
AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information

Field study in order to:

  • Determine lipid content and lipid compositions of ctenophores Mertensia ovum and Beröe cucumis on a seasonal basis
  • Study the life cycles of the two ctenophores
  • Determine the trophic position of the ctenophores Mertensia ovum and Beröe cucumis, and the pteropods Limacina helicina and Clione limacina by means of stable isotopes (d13C and d15N)

Laboratory study in order to:

  • Perform experiments with ctenophores and pteropods to investigate their lipid metabolism (e.g. feeding, starvation and labelling experiments)
  • Acquire knowledge of the processes determining lipid accumulation and composition of Mertensia ovum and Beröe cucumis.
  • Describe the transfer of lipids from calanoid copepods to Mertensia ovum, the reconversion of wax esters and the fate of long-chain fatty alcohols of zooplankton origin.

Activities at the station 2005
1. Field collections:
Two field-collections (April/May, June-August).
The samples will be sorted out into species and stages and kept frozen until further analysis.
2. Experimental work:
During 4 to 5 weeks beginning of August until September we will focus on experiments to reveal on feeding, starvation and lipid metabolism of ctenophores and pteropods.

2006
Collection of CTD data
Phytoplankton sampling with 20µm plankton net
Zooplankton sampling with WP2/WP3 net, beaker on a rod or by divers
Laboratory studies with 13C labelled algae/compounds to reveal the carbon turnover of zooplankton organisms.
Starvation and feeding experiments with the different zooplankton species
Sampling will take place in Kongsfjorden (middle and transitional zones).

An initial field trip of two weeks in June 2006 in June together with the French collaborative partner is to test all sampling protocols and the experimental set up, such as lipid extraction and gas chromatography.
The main field sampling and experimental period will take place in October/November 2006 (max 4 weeks) and March 2007 (max 3 weeks). It will consider the seasonal influence on lipid metabolism of zooplankton organisms. Specific processes will be studied within laboratory experiments. Experimental work with selected zooplankton species will be conducted in the shore-based laboratory in Ny-Ålesund. Collaborative studies will extend to other groups of zooplankton in collaboration with Patrick Mayzaud, LOV, Villefranche, (pending AWIPEV proposal “PRAECAL”)


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Project
KOP 93
Intertidal soft-bottom winter community
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. G. Arlt
Universität Rostock
General 
information
We hypothesise that benthic intertidal species lacking pelagic larvae, such as Meiofauna and several macrofauna species overcome the dark winter season remaining beneath the ice cover, so that the summer community of the intertidal zone is a mixture of local and migrating species. The stay on Spitsbergen will be used for proofing our hypothesis. Samples will be taken and measurements will be made during a season which was up to now only very scarcely a suitable time for such field investigation due to the inconvenient conditions.
Activities at the station 2005
Three localities are intended to be investigated: two intertidal and one shallow subtidal. If ice conditions permit, these areas will be situated in the Thiis-Bukta near Ny-Ålesund. Since an ice cover of about one metre thickness is expected, the upper layer of ice will be removed with a power saw and ice axe. The bottom layer of the ice will be drilled with a modified version of a sediment corer, which has been successfully used by us for several years. The core taken from the bottom will contain the bottom layer of ice and the top layer of the sediment. Five cores will be taken at each locality. Meiofauna will be collected by subsampling using a plastic tube. For further treatment the samples will be fixed with a formaldehyde solution. Sieving and extraction will be performed in the laboratory in Ny-Ålesund. Additionally, several samples will be evaluated alive. The actual investigation are planned to be carried out in Rostock.



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Project
KOP 94
Tethered balloon
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. M. Maturilli
AWI Potsdam
General 
information
Contemporaneous measurements of up to 6 meteorological sondes installed on a tethered balloon system will provide profiles of humidity, temperature, pressure, and wind from ground to about 2 km. By performing measurements over several hours we will be able to capture the dynamical evolution of the Arctic boundary layer. The results will be used to validate the boundary layer representation in the atmospheric model HIRHAM under different atmospheric stability conditions. The aim is to investigate how static stable or unstable atmospheric conditions affect the exchange of heat, humidity and momentum.
Activities at the station 2005

Tethered balloon experiments will be performed in the altitude region from ground to about 2 km. Rather than detecting profiles during ascent and descent of the balloon, we plan to have simultaneous measurements with up to 6 meteorological sondes over a time period of several hours. The temporal resolution of the detected profiles of humidity, temperature, pressure, and wind will allow to analyse the dynamical evolution of the Arctic boundary layer.

2006

We plan to obtain maximum meteorological information both in the temporal and the spatial dimension by operating the tethered balloon system in two different modes.  Performing these measurements over a time span of several hours allows to monitor the dynamical evolution of the Arctic boundary layer with a high temporal resolution. On the other hand, the tethered balloon system will be used to obtain vertical profiles with high spatial resolution by ascent and descent of one meteorological sonde.


2007

Tethered balloon experiments in the altitude region from ground to about 2 km will be preformed in two different measurement modes. In the long duration mode ("high temporal resolution mode"), simultaneous measurements with up to 6 meteorological sondes along the tether will be run over a time period of several hours. The temporal resolution of the detected profiles of humidity, temperature, pressure, and wind will allow to analyse the dynamical evolution of the Arctic boundary layer. The other measurement mode ("high spatial resolution mode") implies the detection of profiles during ascent and descent of the balloon, mainly in support of the ASTAR campaign.


2008
n the period March-April 2008, tethered balloon experiments with high temporal resolution will be performed to capture the dynamical variation humidity, temperature, pressure, and wind in the planetary boundary layer. As similar measurements will be obtained from the North Pole drifting station NP-35, the combination of the land site (Ny-Alesund) and the Arctic Ocean region (NP-35) observations will comprise the nature of the Arctic planetary boundary layer. The tethered balloon measurements will provide a major data base for a PhD study on the connection between cyclogenesis, storm tracks, and Arctic boundary layer conditions.

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Project
KOP 95
FTIR CO2
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. J. Notholt
Dr. T. Warneke

University of Bremen
General 
information
The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) has been established as a powerful tool for measurements of atmospheric trace gases. Using the sun or moon as light source, between 20-30 trace gases of the tropo- and stratosphere can be detected by their absorption features. The analysis of the spectra allow to retrieve the total zenith columns of the trace gases. For a few trace gases the pressure broadening of the lines allow to get additionally some informations on the vertical concentration profiles. Some important trace gases can not be detected in the IR but in the UV/VIS. This makes it useful to record the whole spectral region from the IR from about 700/cm (14 µm) to the UV at 33000/cm (300 nm).
Goal: Total column densities of CO2 as input for inverse models.
Activities at the station 2005
Ground-based FTIR observations are performed as part of the long-term observations within the NDSC (Kol 02c). The spectral region, relevant for the CO2 retrieval, is measured as part of these observation since 2002. The measurements are performed half automaticaly by the engineer at the station. Spectra are recorded typically once or twice per week. The analysis of the spectra is performed at the University of Bremen and at AWI.

2006
With the sun as light source the observations are performed regularly once or twice per week, if the weather conditions permit. Using the moon as light source the measurements are performed around the full moon period on plus or minus three days. Overall measurements are performed on between 30 and 60 days per year.

2007

The overall aim of the upcoming season is to continue the observations of CO2 and CH4, and to understand the differences between measurements and models.


2008
The overall aim of the upcoming season is to analyse CH4 in the near infrared spectral region in a similar way as done for CO2 in the last years.
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Project
KOP 96
BOS II
Responsible 
scientist
M. Wolff
AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information
We have developed an optical balloon-borne sensor for simultaneous measurements of  trace gases in the stratosphere (Wolff et al., 2004).
Because of the payload weight of only 2kg, and a small portable ground station, the new instrument is very suitable for fieldwork campaigns under limited logistic conditions. We performed 4 successful launches in June 2004 at the Koldewey-Station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Preliminary results proved that ozone profiles can be retrieved and from further analyses other trace gas profiles (NO2 etc.) are expected.
The sonde is developed  as a balloon optical sensor (BOS) for measuring stratospheric trace gases. A miniature spectrometer detects the dispersed sunlight (200 – 850 nm) during the ascent through the atmosphere. Vertical profiles of trace gases, which absorb sunlight within this wavelength interval and thus cause changes in the sunlight intensity, can be determined.

In the 2005 campaign, five BOS-sondes of the same type will be launched and by this simultaneous measurements of ozone profiles and other trace gases up to 40 km are received and can be compared with the NDSC ground based measurements and ECC ozone sondes.
Two comparison – flights will be done with an other type optical sonde, described by (Okabayashi 1999). This type of sonde was launched during an earlier project (KOP 10) at Koldewey - Station.
Furthermore it is planned to carry out two BOS-flights with comparable ozone situation and different sun heights (e.g. day and night launch of the same day) in order to determine the influence of the sun height to the accuracy  of the measurements. Additionally to the launches ground-based measurements with the BOS-Sensor are planned and will be compared to the UV-measurements regularly done at Koldewey-Station.
Activities at the station 2004
Four launches of  BOS II Balloons.

2005

Preparation and tests of the BOS-sonde groundstation and the GRAW groundstation which is necessary for the other optical sonde.
Ground-based measurements from the NDSC-roof in clear-sky conditions.
Five launches of the BOS-Sondes with parallel started ECC-sondes.
Two launches of the old type optical sonde, in short time distance to the BOS-sondes.
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Project
KOP 97
SvalEx-2005 ground support
Responsible 
scientist
R. Neuber
AWI Potsdam
General 
information
The atmospheric physics part of the SvalEx aircraft campaign, which will be staged in Svalbard Airport Longyearbyen during April 2005, deals with the climate impact of tropospheric aerosols. In particular, the characteristics and effects of the increased springtime tropospheric aerosol load, called “Arctic Haze” is investigated. While the aim of the aircraft campaign is to determine the optical characteristics of such aerosols and their spatial (in)homogeneity and distribution, the aim of the ground based measurements is to provide comprehensive characterisation of the temporal and vertical distribution of Arctic Haze over Ny-Ålesund. The aircraft will regularly over fly Ny-Ålesund in order to allow the combination of the two data sets.
We anticipate to produce detailed data sets of optical parameters of Arctic Haze events, which will be used for parameterisation of such aerosols in the high resolution climate research model HIRHAM. Model investigations can reveal not only the direct effect of Arctic Haze, but also some indirect influence both on the large-scale as well as on the meso-scale atmospheric circulation. Through the aerosol-radiation-circulation feedback, the scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol can cause pressure pattern changes which even have the potential to modify Arctic teleconnection patterns (Rinke, A., Dethloff, K., Fortmann, M. (2004). Regional climate effects of Arctic Haze, Geophysical research letters, VOL. 31, L16202, doi:10.1029/2004GL020318, 2004).
Activities at the station 2005
Two main instrumentations will be used to contribute to the overall
goals of this project, namely the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar KARL (also KOL 09) and the sun photometer (also KOL 03). While the first will deliver vertical profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients at three wavelengths (UV, vis., near-IR), the sun photometer will deliver column aerosol densities in the whole spectrum from UV to near IR. Both instruments will be operated as often as possible during the campaign period, with the photometer running in automatic mode. Additional information about the troposphere over Ny-Ålesund shall come from new measurements with tethered balloon (KOP 94), and from the continuous meteorological measurements (KOL 01). NIPR Tokyo, which runs the Japanese station in Ny-Ålesund is expected to contribute with data from the one wavelength MicroPulse Lidar. Their measurements of the chemical state of surface layer aerosol and the investigations of precipitation, as carried out in KOL 08, will contribute to the chemical characterisation of low altitude aerosols.
All mentioned instruments (except KOP 94) are already installed and operative. Additional personal will be on site to ensure the continuous operation of the instruments.
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Project
KOP 98
Carbon isotopic signature of atmospheric methane over Spitsbergen during winter
Responsible 
scientist
Ellen Damm,
Jörg Hartmann
AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information
The global atmospheric methane budget is of obvious interest because methane is a potent greenhouse gas.
During the winter, convective mixing of water masses very quickly transports bottom-released methane to the sea surface. The resulting difference in the partial pressure between the atmosphere and surface water and the turbulence in the surface water generated by strong winds favour a sea-air exchange during periods of open water. By this way a direct pathway for biogases like methane between surface sediments and the atmosphere is generated on polar shelves. This direct methane exchange is not yet considered in sea-air flux models of climatically significant biogases.
Since the bottom-released methane is depleted in 13C with respect to the atmospheric 13CCH4 value this sea-air flux is a source of isotopically light methane to the atmosphere. Therefore, the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane is a useful tracer for identifying emission sources. This will provide a better regional estimate of the methane budget.
In the atmosphere, emissions from the sea surface will, due to the shallow winterly arctic boundary layer, remain near the surface at low levels. We therefore expect during on-shore winds to identify shelf-released methane in air samples taken at the shore near Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen. Above the boundary layer, in situations with a strong and low-level temperature inversion, the atmospheric background 13CCH4 signature of methane is expected. Air samples shall also be taken during these conditions, preferably at the top of Zeppelin Mountain. The background samples shall be taken during off-ice winds from the north and east in situations when the sea ice cover is complete at the shore upwind of the measurement site.
Activities at the 
station
2006
Sampling of air for the measurement of the carbon isotopic signature of atmospheric methane
Sampling on two different positions. 1: near the fjord every 2 or 3 days and 2: after an arrangement with NILU/Kim Holmen and in collaboration with him on the Zeppelin Mountain roughly once a week


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Project
KOP 99
AWIPEV-INVEST Kongsfjorden II
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Dirk Dethleff
Kiel University
General 
information
From mid July to mid August, the precipitation is usually strongest on Spitsbergen and, thus, the terrestrial discharge toward the Kongsfjorden marine ecosystem is highest during this period. The terrestrial particle discharge has various impacts on littoral environments and habitats. The joint target of the French ‘HYDRO-LOVEN-FLOWS project’ from Besançon University (Dr. M. Griselin, COP304) and the German ‘AWIPEV-INVEST Kongsfjorden II’ study (IPÖ) is to learn more about potential sedimentological processes and interactions at the terrestrial-marine interface and in the littoral zone of the Kongsfjorden ecosystem in Kolhamnalaguna and below Austre Lovénbreen glacier.
The main scopes of the fieldwork is to improve our understanding on processes like (i) fluvial particle discharge, (ii) coastal and near shore deposition, (iii) potential local biological impact, and (iv) hydrodynamic re-suspension and removal of (formerly terrigenous) fine-grained particulate material in the Kongsfjorden littoral. The investigations will be completed by the deployment of ADCP and ALTUS (sediment altimeter) as well as by the conductance of outdoor tank experiments (‘natural laboratory’).

Activities at the 
station
2005
Conductance of AWIPEV-INVEST Kongsfjorden I

2006
Identifying particle pathways from terrestrial sources toward temporal littoral deposition. Identifying terrestrial sources of littoral Kongsfjorden sedimentary deposits in Kolhamnalaguna and Austre Lovénbreen bay. Investigating and identifying hydrodynamic processes (erosion, accumulation) in the littoral sedimentary regime of Kongsfjorden. Balancing sedimentary budgets of selected terrestrial/littoral interface sites in Kongsfjorden

2007
  • Sedimentological investigation at the coastal interface below Austre Lovenbreen glacier (time dependent on precipitation period); conducting several sampling cycles of terrestrial particle discharge, sea water, bottom sediments; most probably daily moves by zodiac between Koldewey and Corbel stations
  • Preparation of tank experiments and Kolhamnlaguna field work
  • Filtration of particle samples, binocular microscope investigation of sampled material and storage of samples


2008
One of the main 2008 goals is to further develop the algae-related bio-sedimentological and hydrodynamic research in Kongsfjorden jointly established between IPOE, the University of Bremen, AWI and the Universities of Rouen/Besancon in 2005-07. In Kolhamna Bay, we trace pathways of terrestrial particles from river discharge to littoral deposition, and we investigate the light-stress related ecological impact of sediment particles on macroalgae. We further progress the littoral sedimentological studies conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007 ('AWIPEV-INVEST Kongfjorden I to III'; 'GLACIO-MARINE SEDIMENT DYNAMICS') between Kolhamna Bay and Austre Lov,nbreen glacier, thereby further completing our knowledge on sedimentary dynamics of various Kongsfjorden shallow water ecosystems.

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Project
KOP 100
ARCTEX (Arctic Turbulence Experiment)
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Thomas Foken (Universität Bayreuth)
Dr. Jörg Bareiss  (Universität Trier)
Dr. Johannes Lüers (Univeristät Bayreuth)
General 
information
Accurate estimation of turbulent fluxes between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer in polar environments is a fundamental problem in ocean-atmosphere-ice interaction studies and numeric modelling. In particular, the parameterisation schemes of such fluxes under stable atmospheric stratification remain still inaccurate. Components of the surface energy budget provide the thermodynamic forcing on snow and ice, thus controlling the freezing and melting processes. Primarily during the spring/summer transition, surface properties in polar regions change considerably.
The proper representation of the turbulent fluxes requires adequate simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer. Unfortunately, significant deficiencies in atmosphere-ocean-ice models are found due to uncertainties and inadequacies in physical parameterisations and forcings of fluxes such as sensible and latent heat as well as momentum.
To address these problems, it is essential to improve the atmospheric databases with high-quality in-situ measurements of turbulent fluxes near the surface applying the eddy-covariance method. These data obtained from direct measurements (CSAT3 sonic anemometer, KH20 krypton hygrometer) will allow the validation of simulated results from simple flux gradient-methods used to force atmosphere-ocean-ice models. To achieve these goals, it is required to obtain comprehensive datasets from field campaigns that provide increased understanding of the accurate quantity of turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer and the improvement of physical parameterisations schemes.

Reference: Short-term project at the Koldewey-Station KOP 76
Activities at the 
station
2006
Determination of an appropriate sampling site for the eddy-covariance method in the vicinity of Ny-Ålesund. The footprint area of the sampling site should include a part of the ocean (open water and/or sea-ice) and a part of the (snow covered) plain landside.

Flux-gradient measurement complex (aerodynamic and Bowen-ratio-methods):
Meteorological tower (6 m)
Cup anemometers at 4 to 6 different heights above displacement height
Electrically ventilated psychrometers at 4 to 6 different heights above displacement height
CNR1 net radiometer (Kipp & Zonen, Delft, Netherlands)
Soil heat flux plates (Campbell Scientific, Inc., U.S.A.)
Data logging system

2008
The field campaign ARCTEX-2008 (two weeks in August or September 2008) will comprise: a) Continuous measurements of high-resolution (20 Hz) turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, of momentum and of carbon dioxide and water vapour using the new AWI Eddy-Flux Station located at the AWI permafrost research site in the Bayelva catchment. b) Additional measurements with a LASER Scintillometer across the Bayelva catchment during the stay in autumn 2008. c) In-situ quality checks, instrument position correction, maintenance and necessary calibration (esp. Campbell LiCor 7500 gas analyser) of the whole Eddy-Flux Station d) Detailed coverage of the whole FOOTPRINT area around the EC-Station and eventually position correction.

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Project
KOP 101
Polar AOD Network Comparison
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber 
AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information
The  project aims at establishing a long term Arctic-Antarctic network to obtain a quantification of the atmospheric aerosol variability in polar regions, including improved characterization of polar aerosols and an evaluation of background values, such threshold values being suitable for evaluating the entity of future changes, due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. A combined strategy, assimilating information from different sources such as ground-based, aircraft and satellite observations, will permit to obtain an accurate assessment of direct climate forcing due to polar aerosol on a regional scale, addressing peculiarities and similarities of the two poles.
Activities at the 
station
since 1991
Regular photometer observations, altough reference KOL 03
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Project
KOP 102
Benthic microalgae from Arctic waters
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Ulf Karsten
Prof. Dr. Christian Wiencke
University of  Rostock, AWI Bremerhaven
General 
information

A. Survey on the biomass and abundance of microbenthic diatoms from Kongsfjorden

  The ecological importance of benthic microalgae for aquatic primary production is well investigated and documented for temperate to tropical shallow waters only. Some systems such as the tidal flats of the North Sea are completely dependent on the performance of benthic diatoms which act as the major primary producers and hence control the trophic food webs. In addition, due to the excretion of sticky extracellular polymeric substances, benthic diatoms also stabilise sediments and reduce erosion processes. In contrast, much less is known on microphytobenthic communities in polar regions. In a recent review of Hop et al. (2002) on the marine ecology of Kongsfjorden, the ecological importance of the microphytobenthos for primary production and the food web is expected to be high although nothing is known.

In 2006 the biomass, abundance and biodiversity of benthic diatoms was for the first time intensively studied in the shallow waters of Kongsfjorden. This included a field survey at different stations at which along vertical transects from 2 to 20 m numerous small sediment cores were taken by divers and analysed in the laboratory for chlorophyll a as biomass parameter. The sampling strategy was extremely successful, and the first processed data indicate much higher chlorophyll concentrations than expected for polar waters. Since some of the more remote areas of Kongsfjorden could not be sampled in 2006, few complement samplings are planned in 2007.
Hop H et al. (2002) The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Pol. Res. 21: 167-208.

B. Isolation of benthic diatoms and the establishment of unialgal cultures for ecophysiological studies

In contrast to Arctic macroalgae (see Prof.Wiencke’s work) there is almost nothing known on the ecophysiological performance of benthic diatoms from polar regions, particularly from Kongsfjorden. Based on sampling in 2006 further typical and representative diatom taxa from sediments will be isolated, purified and established as unialgal cultures during the expedition by using standard techniques. This material will be further investigated at the University of Rostock under controlled light, temperature and salinity conditions in terms of photosynthesis, growth and viability to outline the ecophysiological performance (optima, minima, maxima etc.) of these microalgae.

C. Primary production of microphytobenthic diatoms

The main goal of the campaign in 2007 will be the estimation of microphytobenthic primary production in situ at different stations along the Kongsfjord. Such measurements have only rarely been done in polar waters, for example, in the Young Sound (Greenland) where very high production rates based on benthic diatoms (up to 40% of total aquatic primary production) were determined.

Typical methods used to measure microphytobenthic primary production include 14C-tracer techniques, microelectrode profiling, optical methods (reflectance, fluorescence) and so-called benthic chambers. Like a cheese-cover the chamber is typically pushed into the sediment and left for several hours thereby covering a defined area of microphytobenthic organisms. After defined time intervals small water samples are taken from the chamber and chemically analysed for their oxygen concentration. From all data the oxygen production versus time can be calculated and related to the area covered or to the total biomass in the chamber. This standard approach, however, has many methodological disadvantages under in-situ conditions (e.g. sampling from the chamber under water; chemical oxygen analysis in the laboratory etc.) which are well recognized by the marine scientific community.

To overcome these problems Prof. Karsten’s group started to develop a new type of benthic chamber which is based on the optical, and not chemical, determination of oxygen produced. The basic idea is to glue commercially available planar oxygen sensor foil spots inside the benthic chamber which prototype has already been tested on Spitsbergen in 2006, and to measure the oxygen concentration on-line, non-invasive and non-destructive from outside through the wall of the chamber via a long optical microfiber. This microfiber is than connected to a commercial detector system. The main advantages of this system to be expected are:
1. Better long-term stability
2. Easy to handle and robust under field conditions
3. High reproducibility
4. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurement from outside through the wall of the chamber
2008
During the expedition in 2008, we plan to measure in situ primary production at different stations and water depths to get a comprehensive data set on the activity of benthic diatoms which can be used to evaluate total microphytobenthic primary production of Kongsfjorden.
Two methodological approaches, both based on planar optodes, will be used for quantification of this process. Firstly, in situ measurements will be carried out at various representative stations using the newly developed benthic chambers, and secondly in parallel primary production will be estimated on sediment cores in the laboratory under controlled conditions. Other important parameters to be measured (or considered) for a first crude calculation of the annual production include biomass, cell numbers and underwater light conditions. The proposed study requires one month of data collection and analyses. The research activities include:
Activities at the 
station
2007
During the expedition in 2007, we plan to measure primary production at many places as possible, at different depths and under different environmental conditions (cloudy vs. sunny days; turbide water vs. clear water etc.) to get a comprehensive data set on the activity of benthic diatoms which can be used to evaluate total primary production of Kongsfjorden.
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Project
KOP 103
Measurement of Cosmic Radiation with Emphasis on Neutrons at high Geomagnetic Latitudes
Responsible 
scientist
Herwig G. Paretzke
Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH) Ingolstädter Landstr. 1 85764 Neuherberg
General 
information
Air crew members and airline passengers are continuously exposed to cosmic radiation during their flights.  Particles ejected by the sun (Solar Particle Events SPEs) during periods of high solar activity contribute to this exposure.
In rare cases the dose from a single SPE might even exceed the annual dose limit of 1 mSv above which dose monitoring of air crews is legally required.  It is proposed here to investigate SPEs at the Koldewey station by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, because their intensity is largest close to the geomagnetic poles. The project will provide first experimental data on the time-dependent energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the atmosphere after an SPE.
Activities at the
station

2006
  1. Installation of a Bonner multi-sphere spectrometer at the Koldewey Station .
  2. Installation of a data link between GSF and Koldewey Station to ensure remote control of the spectrometer from GSF, and regular data transfer.
  3. Continuous measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic radiation neutrons at low geomagnetic cut-off.
  4. Comparison of the measured spectra with calculations of the cosmic radiation field at the spectrometer site based on Monte Carlo simulations.
  5. Comparison of the measured energy spectra with those measured by us at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (altitude 2,650 m) at the summit of the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, and with data from the world-wide web of neutron monitors.
  6. surement of the neutron energy spectra during GLE.


2007
  1. Continuous measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic radiation neutrons at low geomagnetic cut-off, at the Koldewey station.
  2. Comparison of the measured spectra with calculations of the cosmic radiation field at the spectrometer site based on Monte Carlo simulations.
  3. Comparison of the measured energy spectra with those measured by us at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (altitude 2,650 m) at the summit of the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, and with data from the world-wide web of neutron monitors.
  4. Measurement of the neutron energy spectra during GLE´s caused by SPE´s.
  5. Tests of two additional detectors that are intended to upgrade the spectrometer in the future (see below). These tests will be performed at GSF, and on the Zugspitze mountain
  6. first, before the detectors will be installed at the Koldewey station.

2007
At present the solar activity cycle is on its minimum, thus we expect an increase of bursts in the next years that we will follow by our measurements. Recently a contact was established to the Russian Neutron Measurement Station in Barentsburg and first data were already exchanged. We would like to continue this cooperation for the complete period of the experiment.
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Project
KOP 104
Year of Polar Research at the Zoological Garden Rostock, daily live video transmission between AWIPEV and Zoo
Responsible 
scientist
Frank Fuchs
Zoological Garden Rostock
General 
information

The Zoo Rostock cooperates with the AWI in public outreach in the year 2007. The topic for the whole year is polar research with special emphasis on climate change an the impact on animal life. To increase public awareness, several highlights within the year are planned. The first half of the year 2007 is devoted to mainly Arctic topics, while the second half of the year is focused on the Antartic.

A Part of the Zoo Rostock − the so-called Darwin Box − is decorated with lots of exhibits on polar research. One part of the Darwin Box is a large screen on which movies and presentations can be shown.

From the point of view from the AWI, public outreach especially in the International Polar Year is very important. The proposed projects fits within the many outreach activities that are planned or proposed.

Activities at the
station

2007

During the German spring holiday, the Darwin Box will be connected directly to the AWIPEV research base by the means of a video conference. In addition, the accompanying journalist should collect material for one of the large German TV broadcasters, NDR, for a 45minute feature about research in the arctic and the impact of climate change to the fauna. Material for both kinds of use should be collected in the field around Brøggeralvøya.

The Impact of both kinds of communication should be to give the public at the Zoo Rostock a direct link to the endangered habitat in the Arctic. Interaction with the project group on site will allow much more information transfer than just showing a movie about the polar regions.

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Project
KOP 105
Consequences of climate change for Arctic marine pelagic microbial communities (IPY/PAME, CAMP project)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Anita G.J.Buma
University of Groningen
General 
information
Arctic climate change may cause rising water temperatures, increased precipitation as well as melt water input that will strongly affect salinity (stratification) and turbidity in Arctic coastal systems. These factors are all likely to affect the performance and composition of microbial (phyto- and bacterioplankton) communities. In the proposed project effects of climate change related changes in environmental conditions on marine microbial communities from the Kongsfjord will be studied. To this end, in situ measurements will be performed in the Kongsfjord and Krossfjord to relate microbial activity and community structure with physico/chemical environmental conditions such as irradiance, turbidity, temperature and salinity. In addition microbial performance (PP, BP, species composition) will be studied in microcosm experiments where these same physico/chemical variables will be manipulated.
Activities at the
station

2007

Firstly, microbial community structure and the physico-chemical environment (salinity, irradiance, turbidity, nutrients) will be studied during regular surveys (once a week) of a transect in the Kongsfjord and adjacent Krossfjord, during early summer. Secondly, regular (2-3 times per week) radio labelling experiments will be conducted from a fixed point close to Koldewey to assess microbial productivity (PP, BP) in relation with environmental variables. Thirdly, microcosm manipulation experiments on shore will be executed to unravel the effects of salinity, turbidity and irradiance changes on microbial community activity and composition. Phyto- and bacterioplankton composition will be studied using a range of chemotaxonomic (a.o. HPLC fingerprinting) and molecular (DGGE, DNA sequencing), techniques. The recently implemented MICRO-CARD-FISH will be used to study group specific bacterial activities.


2008
Field surveys of the Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden marine microbial communities and the physico-chemical water properties will be performed. To this extend, samples will be collected from different depths at fixed locations in the fjords: twice a week from the Kongsfjorden and once a week in the Krossfjorden. Shifts over time and space in the marine pelagic microbial communities will be assessed by application of molecular tools (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and sequencing), pigment fingerprints and microscopy analysis. Simultaneously changes in the physico-chemical environment (salinity, irradiance, turbidity and nutrients) will be measured. The primary and bacterial productivity of microbial communities of the Kongsfjorden will be assessed by radio labeling assays conducted ashore. Additionally groups specific activity for bacteria will be determined by the application of MICR-CARD-FISH, a technique combining in situ hybridization of fluorescently labelled probed developped for specific bacterial groups and uptake of radioactively labelled amino-acids.
The minicosm manipulation experiments on shore will be executed to unravel the effects of varying physico-chemical factors on microbial community activity and composition. We will use similar techniques as described for the field survey.

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Project
KOP 106
Pelagic Archaea in the changing coastal Arctic
Responsible 
scientist
Gerhard J. Herndl
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ)
General 
information
We hypothesize that the climate change affecting the Arctic coastal waters favors Archaea relatively more than Bacteria, leading possibly to shifts in the prokaryotic community from Bacteria to Archaea dominating the prokaryotic community. This hypothesis, although untested thus far, is based on recent findings as increased melt water input increases the amount of allochthonous suspended matter in coastal Arctic systems. Crenarchaeal abundance has been found to be positively related to particle concentration. The crenarchaeal fraction of the prokaryotic community is relatively more abundant on particles than in the free-living community in coastal Arctic systems. These particles might form hot spots of ammonia oxidation as some creanarchaeal phylotypes are ammonia oxidizers while other crenarchaeal phylotypes are preferentially utilizing D-amino acids which are common in tundra soil. All these recent advances in our understanding of the ecology of marine non-thermophilic planktonic Archaea are pointing towards the fact that the recent climate changes in Arctic systems might favor Archaea over Bacteria. As planktonic Archaea are generally less diverse than Bacteria and prokaryotes are at the base of marine food webs, this hypothesized shift in the prokaryotic community might have severe consequences for coastal Arctic food webs.
Activities at the
station

2007

For the upcoming season we plan to determine the bacterial and archaeal production of the free-living vs. the attached prokaryotic community in the coastal Arctic. Samples will be collected from different layers of the water column for quantification of selected functional genes in Archaea vs Bacteria. Microautoradiography will be combined with CARD-FISH in order to determine the single cell activity of specific archaeal and bacterial populations.

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Project
KOP 107
The significance of viruses for polar marine ecosystem functioning (IPY/PAME, VIRPOL project)
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Corina Brussaard
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ)
General 
information

Microbial communities (phytoplankton, bacteria, archae, heterotrophic protozoa and viruses) comprise the majority of the biomass in the oceans and drive nutrient and energy cycling, thereby supporting also the polar ecosystems. The emergent awareness that the response of ecosystems to climate change depends largely on the responses of the underlying microbial community and that viruses are major players influencing biodiversity and biogeochemical processes, underlines the need to elucidate the ecological role of viruses in polar ecosystems. Despite the likely importance of viruses in polar aquatic ecosystems, the ecological role of viral mediated mortality of polar microbes and the quantitative significance of polar viruses with respect to climate and global environmental change are barely studied.

Arctic climate change may cause rising water temperatures, increased precipitation as well as melt water input that will strongly affect salinity (stratification) and turbidity in Arctic coastal systems. These factors are all likely to affect the performance and composition of microbial communities.


Activities at the
station

2007

In the proposed project viral dynamics, its impact on the numerically dominant microbial hosts (bacteria and phytoplankton), and the effects of climate change related changes in environmental conditions on marine microbial communities from the Kongsfjord will be studied. In close collaboration with the CAMPproject by Dr. A. Buma (RUG, NL), both in situ measurements in the Kongsfjord and Krossfjord during early summer, and microcosm experiments will be performed where physico/chemical variables will be manipulated. The microbial community structure will be studied during regular surveys of a transect in the Kongsfjord and adjacent Krossfjord. Growth and mortality (viral lysis and grazing) assays will be conducted from a fixed point close to Koldewey. And microcosm manipulation experiments on shore will be executed to unravel the effects of salinity, turbidity and irradiance changes on microbial community activity and composition.

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Project
KOP 108
Overlap and discrepancies between ecotypes, genotypes and morphotypes of Antarctic and Arctic nanofauna
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Hartmut Arndt
University of Cologne
General 
information
Heterotrophic nanoflagellates are major consumers of bacteria in Polar Regions and contribute significantly to the carbon flux from DOC via bacteria to larger organisms such as ciliates and metazoans. Many morphotypes contain several genotypes with sometimes high evolutionary distances (pdistances of SSU rRNA). To study the role of endemism in polar waters, we want to analyze discrepancies and overlaps between morphotypes, genotypes and ecotypes of selected nanoflagellates to draw conclusions regarding the possible effects of small changes in temperature on the sensitive Antarctic and Arctic ice biota. We will take samples from Antarctic and Arctic sites, establish cultures of nanoflagellates and analyse them. We will use new clonal cultures in addition to already established cultures of Antarctic and Arctic isolates to study the tolerance of single genotypes regarding temperature, salinity and food composition.
Activities at the
station

2007

Feeding experiments will be carried out in sea-ice habitats of the Arctic. These field experiments will be used to establish a useful procedure for the determination of feeding rates under field conditions. In addition the field sampling will be used to isolate additional strains of nanoflagellates for morphological, molecular and ecological studies and to quantify nanofauna distribution in sea-ice habitats.

Marine nanoflagellates will be isolated using MPN techniques and single cell isolations using micromanipulation. The growth of co-occurring polar bacteria assemblages will be supported by cereal organic substrate and used as a food source for bacterivorous nanoflagellates. Cultures will be stored at 4°C, feeding experiments will be carried out with field samples. Tracer bacteria isolated from polar planctonic samples will be added to experimental vessels for feeding experiments and samples will be fixed after a determined feeding time using glutar aldehyde and Bouin. Field sampling will also be used to isolate and establish new strains of nanoflagellates for morphological, molecular biological and ecological studies and to analyse nanofauna distribution in marine and sea ice habitats.

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Project
KOP 109
Ground-based support during ASTAR (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation) 2007
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Andreas Herber
AWI
General 
information

The Arctic is a sensitive environment where aerosol radiative properties and aerosol-cloud interactions with respect to natural and anthropogenic aerosol sources have been investigated in the last years. Past experiments conducted over the last 40 years have mainly focused on the Arctic Haze phenomenon that occurs during late winter and spring. Optical properties of the aerosol during these events have been studied within projects such as the AGASP program or ASTAR 2000 and ASTAR 2004. The strong intrusions of polluted air masses during Arctic Haze events are important for determining the anthropogenic influence on the radiative balance including cloud formation processes.

Combining the aircraft observations with ground-based and satellite measurements extends the output of the experiment to a larger temporal and spatial scale. Thus coordinated research activities with present satellite projects ATSR-2, CALYPSO, ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY, ILAS II, MERIS, MODIS, OMI, SAGE III, SeaWiFS, and ground-based stations in the Arctic are essential.

Activities at the
station

2007
The scientific objectives of the Arctic campaign are focused on two major issues:
  1. Determination of the vertical structure of the chemical, physical and optical properties of Arctic aerosol particles, including solar radiative closure between observed and calculated aerosol properties (direct climate effect)
  2. Investigation of cloud microphysical and optical properties in the Arctic as a function of different tropospheric aerosol load and the regional extend of aerosol and cloud structures (indirect climate effect)

Project aim:

The main focus of the project is to provide an observational over-determined data set, which is necessary to improve the assessment of the aerosol direct and indirect effects on the Arctic radiative balance. Measurements will be performed during periods of Arctic Haze.



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Project
KOP 110
Ice-marginal processes at surging and non-surging, cold-based and polythermal glaciers in Svalbard - the contribution of englacial thrusting to landform formation
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Sven Lukas
Queen Mary University of London
General 
information
Glaciers erode and transport vast quantities of debris which is deposited mostly in ice-marginal moraines. Thus, knowledge as to how such moraines form in modern environments is crucial to our understanding of former glacier dynamics. Work on some Svalbard glacier margins near Ny-Ålesund has led to the suggestion that moraines can be formed from material emplaced into an englacial position along thrust planes near the snout. This model has subsequently been transferred to upland areas of Britain where it has been controversially discussed. We propose here to employ detailed sedimentological analyses at the margins of the surging and non-surging glaciers that have been used to formulate this controversial model in order to assess its validity and contribute important data to modern glacial analogues and the interpretation of past glacier dynamics.
Activities at the
station

2007  no activities, project is shifted to 2008

2008
In the field season 2008 we aim at establishing the origin of englacial debris and that in moraines in the forelands of at least four glaciers around Ny-Ålesund. Two days at each glacier snout should suffice to carry out this task based on our previous experience with Arctic glaciers. Geomorphological mapping will be followed by logging natural exposures through moraines; enlarging or creating new exposures if those present are not sufficient to obtain detailed and representative data; and detailed measurements of sedimentological structures, clast shape and orientation. Together, this data will allow us to reconstruct processes leading to debris entrainment into the glacier, transport to the snout, mechanisms of deposition near the snout (moraine formation) and finally potential processes leading to an alteration of these moraines.

2008
no activities, project is shifted to 2009 2009
In the field season 2009 we aim at establishing the origin of englacial debris and that in moraines in the forelands of at least four glaciers around Ny-Alesund. Geomorphological mapping will be followed by logging natural exposures through moraines; enlarging or creating new exposures if those present are not sufficient to obtain detailed and representative data; and detailed measurements of sedimentological structures, clast shape and orientation. Together, this data will allow us to reconstruct processes leading to debris entrainment into the glacier, transport to the snout, mechanisms of deposition near the snout (moraine formation) and finally potential processes leading to an alteration of these moraines.
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Project
KOP 111
Research campaign at Ny-Ålesund for MPL testing in PSC observations
Responsible 
scientist
Manuel Gil Ojeda
Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA)
Área de Investigación e Instrumentación Atmosférica
Ctra. Ajalvir, km. 4, Torrejón de Ardoz
28850-Madrid (Spain)
General 
information
The Área de Investigación e Instrumentación Atmosférica (Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation Branch) at INTA (Spanish Institute for Atmospheric and Space Technology) performs long-term observations of ozone and other chemical species (NO2, OClO, BrO, ...) involved in ozone destruction at polar regions. These measurements shall be complemented with a new Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL, type 4) for the detection of PSCs to be installed at Belgrano station (78°S 34.5°W, 256 m a.s.l.) in Artarctica.
Activities at the
station

2007

An accurate testing of the new MPL instrument is highly recommended on proving its PSC detection capabilities, as well as to perform operational training and prepare documentation for current Antarctic operators, before sending the MPL to Antarctic.

AWIPEV Lidar Facilities in Ny-Ålesund (Spitsbergen, Norway) offer the possibility of observations in mid-winter when there are large chances of PSC occurrence.

Data obtained during the campaign will be analyzed in real time. After the end of the observational period, PSC occurrences will carefully be evaluated in order to determine the reliability of our MPL for PSC detection and finally decide the future MPL emplacement in the Antarctic Belgrano station.

  • Dates of stay (approx.): from January 10 to February 10, 2007 (1 month).
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Project
KOP 112
Remote Aerosol characterization by laser induced fluorescence
Responsible 
scientist
Franz Immler
Alfred-Wegener-Institut AWI
General 
information

Arctic haze occurs in spring time in the European Arctic and is attributed to the advection of air from polluted areas. It was assumed, that industrial pollution mainly from eastern Europe was responsible for the Arctic haze. In 2006 unusually strong haze events were recorded in Ny-Ålesund. It was shown that biomass burning of crop fields was the main source for this particular pollution in the Arctic.

Aerosol plumes can be observed with high temporal and vertical resolution by lidar. However, with the currently available Lidar-techniques it is very difficult to determine the type of aerosol. The detection of fluorescence with a lidar overcomes this limitation, since biomass burning plumes are known to exhibit a specific fluorescence spectrum which is not observed at other types of aerosol.

For detail see: MARL Homepage

Activities at the
station

2007

The goal for the upcoming season is to integrate a Fluorescence spectrometer in to the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL). We will use a Cerny- Turner-spectrograph with an attached 32-Channel multi anode photomultiplier, which was already successfully used with the mobile ComCAL lidar system during the ACLIT campaign in Paramaribo/Suriname (5.8°N, 55.2°W)

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Project
KOP 113
Sampling and Anatomical Analysis of Plant Fossils
Responsible 
scientist
Martina Dolezych
Museum für Mineralogie und Geologie Dresden
General 
information
Exploration, systematic sampling and anatomical analysis of plant fossils (mainly woods) from old Tertiary sediments of Spitsbergen for primary record collection including complex examination of the taphonocoenoses. Fossil sampling in Palaeocene sediments and mining slagheaps around Ny-Ålesund.
Activities at the
station

2007

  1. Exploration and Sampling of the fossils.
  2. Transport to Germany.
  3. Preparation by Dr. M. Dolezych.
  4. Anatomical analysis by Prof. H. Walther, Dr. W. Schneider and Dr. M. Dolezych.
  5. Complex palaeontological interpretation, reconstructing Palaeocene vegetation, and using this data for paleoenviromental and palaeoclimatic interpretations.
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Project
KOP 114
Reconstruction of the Ice sheet volume and the Last Deglaciation on Svalbard - constrained by Surface Exposure Dating and Improvement of the Radiocarbon Chronology (RISE)
Responsible 
scientist
Anne Hormes
UNIS Longyearbyen
General 
information
There is growing evidence of reduced ice sheet extension and thickness during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) on Svalbard. These data stem from the coastlines and marine records. The project is the first attempt to collect data from the mountainous areas of Svalbard. We will produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of the LGM ice thickness by mapping glacial trimlines and nunataks in selected mountain areas and dating by means of cosmogenic nuclide dating (10Be, 26Al and 36Cl). The geochronological timing for the melting process of the LGM ice masses is critical for the freshwater pulse at the end of the LGM. Therefore, we aim to produce high-resolution radiocarbon dated lake sediments records for the last deglaciation and early Holocene.
Activities at 
the station
2007
We will take a lake sediment core with 10 cm diameter in Trauvatnet (Broegger-Peninsula). The lake sediment core will serve to reconstruct environmental changes in the catchment area in the last 10,000 years. The inflow of Trauvatnet lake is controlled by snow meltwater and variability in extension of the feeding glaciers.

2008
Beside mapping of the glacial trimlines, other evidence such as striations, depth of rock joints and micro-scale erosion features will be used to constrain the level of trimline altitude and nunataks.
Samples from bedrock will be taken for cosmogenic nuclide dating. For this purpose a rotary hammer drill (UNIS) will be used.

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Project
KOP 115
From Soil to Ocean: Transfer of terrigenous organic carbon from permafrost soils to the Arctic Ocean
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Janet Rethemeyer
General 
information
In order to estimate the effect of rising global temperatures on organic carbon (OC) stocks in the temperature-sensitivity Arctic environment, our project aims at investigating the transfer of terrestrial OC from permafrost soils to the Arctic Ocean. Detailed compositional analyses of bulk soil and sediments along a transport trajectory combined with compound-specific isotopic (13C and 14C) analysis of selected lipid biomarkers will be used to study alteration processes occurring in the soil and during transport.
Sub-goals include to:
  • Identify suitable biomarkers for soil organic carbon in permafrost soils
  • Determine residence times of selected biomarkers in permafrost soils, fluvial and marine sediments
  • Quantify carbon transfer from source (soil) to sink (marine sediment) and its timescale.
Activities at 
the station
2008
Abstract: To study changes in organic matter composition and to trace soil-derived OC along a continental-marine transect in the Bayelva catchment, we will collect soil samples from different depth intervals at 2-3 locations (upper and lower location on the Leirhaugen Hill), surface sediments from the Bayelva drainage area, and from 1-2 shallow water settings in the Kongsfjorden. Suspended particulate organic matter will be sampled by filtration of river water that should ideally be continued (2-3 times) after our stay to identify compositional changes during the increase of the active layer in the thawing period. If possible, most samples will be freeze-dried at the station and/or shipped back frozen for analysis in our laboratories at the University of Bremen and the AWI Bremerhaven.
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Project
KOP 117
Impact of ocean acidification and warming on polar shelled pteropods (Limacina spp.)
Responsible 
scientist
PD Dr. Iris Werner
General 
information
Increasing anthropogenic CO2-loads are reducing ocean pH-values and carbonate concentrations, with strongest effects in high-latitude surface waters, which are also the regions experiencing the steepest increase in ocean warming. Undersaturation with respect to aragonite could begin in Arctic regions by the end of the 21st century. The only pelagic aragonite-producers are shelled pteropods. Pteropods can dominate zooplankton communities with mass occurrences at times, are key species in the epipelagic food webs, and contribute significantly to the vertical flux of both organic matter and calcium carbonate to the deep sea. We hypothesize that ocean acidification and warming will have pronounced effects on the calcification and metabolism of pteropods and thus, also strongly impact the ecosystem level in high latitudes. We propose a multidisciplinary (ecology, physiology, biochemistry), experimental pteropod study on various potential effects.
Activities at 
the station
2008
The overall aim of this project is firstly to study the interactive or synergistic effects of ocean acidification and rising water temperatures on a key element of polar epipelagic communities, the shelled pteropods (Limacina spp.). Systematic experimental studies on the calcification and other metabolic responses of pteropods to elevated pCO2 levels and rising temperatures have not been carried out as yet and are therefore urgently called for. One major challenge is rearing of these delicate pelagic animals, and therefore the main goal for the upcoming season is the establishment of an efficient rearing culture in order to set up experimental approaches with varying pCO2 and temperature. In the long term (2. and 3. year) we want to answer the question about the ecological consequences of potential effects for different life-stages of the species and their role in the polar marine ecosystem. e.g. as consumer and/or prey for higher trophic levels.
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Project
KOP 118
Impact of CO2 on thermal tolerance, pH and ionic regulation and larval development of crustaceans from different climes.
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Hans-Otto Poertner

Kathleen Walther
General 
information
In future climate scenarios CO2 will increase in the air and simultaneously advance the acidification of the oceans (Caldeira & Wickett 2003, IPCC 2001). For studying the effect of elevated CO2 levels and rising temperatures on crustaceans from different climate zones we plan to use two populations of the cold-eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus, which is distributed from the German bight to the sub-Arctic region of Spitzbergen (Camus et.al 2002, Dyer 1985). Analyses will include a characterisation of temperature tolerance windows (Poertner et.al 2005), of ionic regulation mechanisms (Poertner et.al 2004) and of larval development under future relevant CO2 concentrations. The analyses should elaborate the regulatory strategies involved in compensating the CO2 increase and acidification of the ocean. This investigation should also reveal whether the acclimation capacity of the animals differs between climate regimes.
Activities at 
the station
2008
Our goal is to catch adult Hyas araneus and ovigerous females in the Kongsfjord near Ny-Alesund on Spitzbergen over several months and start experiments on ion regulation and acid-base status of Hyas araneus at the marine lab in Kings Bay. Animals will be placed in tanks of different temperatures and different CO2 concentrations. The synergistic effect of different temperatures and elevated CO2 concentrations on hemolymph pH will be monitored on-line at regular intervals using implantable pH sensors. Hemolymph samples will be collected from the animals for analyses of gas and acid-base status as well as ionic composition. For further studies the animals will be transferred to AWI-Bremerhaven and Helgoland.
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Project
KOP 119
Secondary Metabolites in Marine Sponges: Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Over Time
Responsible 
scientist
Matthias Koeck
Gesine Schmidt
General 
information
In contrast to many other marine regions, chemical interactions between organisms in Arctic waters are little understood. This project investigates natural products and chemical interactions in the sponge genus Haliclona in temperate and polar waters. Several new secondary metabolites isolated from Haliclona shown feeding deterrence and activity against bacteria and fungi, but the compound composition and varies with habitat and year. That raises the question whether sponges of the genus Haliclona as a model are able to adapt to changing environmental factors such as water temperature and colonization by bacteria by varying their secondary metabolite composition.
Activities at 
the station
2008
In the summer of 2008, the main focus will be set on the collection of fresh sponge material, both for the establishment of a suitable on-site HPLC method for compound quantification and for further analyses in Bremerhaven. An attempt will be made to keep Haliclona in aquaria and monitor the secondary metabolites over a period of two weeks. If possible, sponge-associated bacteria will be isolated and taken back to Bremerhaven.
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Project
KOP 121
IPY-THORPEX: 6-hourly radiosondes
Responsible 
scientist
Dr. Marion Maturilli
General 
information
THORPEX is an international Global Atmospheric Research Programme to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather forecasts for the benefit of society and the economy. The programme builds upon ongoing advances within the basic-research and operational-forecasting communities. It will make progress by enhancing international collaboration between these communities and with users of forecast products.
The THORPEX campaign in February and March 2008 will involve ship- and airborne measurements as well as extra soundings from several radiosonde stations.
The AWIPEV base in Ny-Alesund will support the program with 6-hourly radiosonde launches during the intensive campaign period from 24 February to 16 March 2008.
Activities at 
the station
2008
During the campaign period 24 Feb to 16 March 2008, requests for extra soundings will be issued from the Norwegian IPY-THORPEX project team that will be located on Andøya or in Tromsø with aircraft teams (probably aircraft from DLR, FAAM and/or NOAA). The extra radio soundings (every 6 hours) will be requested in weather situations with forecasts of cold air flowing off the ice and over the open ocean with chances of arctic fronts and polar lows being formed. The observations should be transferred in (near) real time via GTS (or in some other agreed way) to met.no for use in the operational forecasts for the further planning and execution of the experimental campaign.
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Project
KOP 122
Effect of UV Radiation on Microalgae Isolated from the Arctic
Responsible 
scientist
Prof. Dr. Phang Siew-Moi

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chu Wan-Loy
General 
information
One of the major concerns of climate change is the increased penetration of UVR in the Polar Regions (Smith et al., 1992). Effect of UVR stress on microalgae has received great interest as they form the basis of the food chains in the polar ecosystems. (Chu et al., 2005). Increased UVR can have adverse impacts on the biochemistry and physiology of microalgae, including the inhibition of photosysnthesis and destruction of molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids (Wong et al., 2007; Buma et al., 2006). Most studies on UVR effect focus on wild populations of microalgae in the field or cultures grown under laboratory conditions. There have been no reports on exposing microalgae isolated from the Arctic to the natural UVR under field conditions.
Activities at 
the station
2008
The major objective of the project is to investigate the adaptation and response of Arctic microalgae to increased solar UVR.
This will be done by exposing cultures of algae isolated from the Arctic to the UVR under field conditions and determining their growth, oxidative stress enzyme activity and fatty acid profiles. Simultaneous studies under controlled laboratory conditions will be conducted.
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Project
KOP 123
Ecophysiological Changes in Arctic Seaweeds Triggered by Rising Temperature and Dissolved CO2 (SEATEC)
Responsible 
scientist
Francisco J. Lopez-Gordillo
General 
information
In the new global change scenario polar marine ecosystems must face inevitable rise in the concentration of dissolved CO2 and water temperature. Macrolagae dominating coastal areas will need to adapt their metabolism to the new situation. However, little is known about the ecophysiological strategies and the direction of changes in terms of species being favoured and species threatened to abandon the system.

We will investigate the effects of combined enhanced temperature (2 and 6 ºC, culture temperature) and CO2 (current levels and 0.5% CO2) on growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass composition (C:N, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and nutrient assimilation. Additionally we will elucidate the potential of high CO2 to alleviate photoinhibition of algae exposed to excess irradiance, and the role of external carbonic anhydrase in both acclimation to low temperature and photoprotection. We will quantify the amount of carbon being released to the external medium, so closing the carbon balance.

Activities at 
the station
2008
Around 12 species will be cultured for 9-11 days under two different temperatures (2 and 6 °C) and two levels of CO2 (current levels and 0.5 % extra CO2 supplied in the aeration system). We will divide the resulting number of cultures in two sets running in parallel with a delay of 3 days from set 1 to set 2 in order to be able to manage the generated big number of samples. Samples for analyses will be taken during days 9, 10 and 11 of culture (different days for different variables).

Photosynthesis and growth. We will examine the effects of enhanced CO2 and temperature in photosynthetic efficiency by using PAM-fluorometry, a non-invasive method that gives a number of photosynthesis-related parameters. Growth rate will be calculated from the increase in biomass (fresh weight) during incubation period.
Nutritional key enzymes. We will be assaying nitrate reductase activity by the in situ method in the different species after the incubation period. Another key enzyme involved in the acclimation of cells will presumably be eCA. The activity of this enzyme will be measured by the potentiometric method at the end of the incubation period.
Biomass composition. Samples will be assayed for pigment, protein, carbohydrate and lipid content. Standard colorimetric methods will be used. Samples for total C and N (C:N ratio) will be frozen and lyophilised to be analysed once in Spain.
Organic Carbon release. The incubation medium will be filtered and both the filter and the filtrate will be analysed for particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respectively, once in Spain.
Photoinhibition experiments. Photoinhibition is quickly and easily studied by using the PAM-fluorometer (Hanelt et al. 2001). A number of representative species will be incubated for three days under excess irradiance (e.g. 500 µmol m¯²s¯¹) and then analysed. Growth rate and the activity of eCA will be also estimated in these experiments.

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Project
RAL 313a
Orbit determination
Responsible 
scientist
Herve Fagard 
IGN Paris
General 
information
Doppler signal from radio waves emitted from DORIS beacon, situated at Rabot Station, towards Satellites as SPOT2, SPOT 4, Topex Poseidon, Jason1, Envisat, Spot5. Frequencies of emissions are 401.25 MHz and 2036.25 MHz.
Activities at the 
station
since 2004
Measurements like explained in the preface.
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Project
RAL 313b
DORIS Meteo Rabot
Responsible 
scientist
Herve Fagard 
IGN Paris
General 
information
Meteo station at Rabot Station. Temperature, humidity, pressure, continious recording – Sensors: Vaisala PTU 200.
Activities at the 
station
since 2004
Measurements like explained in the preface.
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Project
RAP 330
Kittiwakes Endocrinology
Responsible 
scientist
Oliver Chastel
CEBC– CNRS, Villiers en Bois, France
General 
information
A co-operative project between France and Norway is proposed to study the physiological mechanisms (hormones and metabolic rate) involved in the regulation of parental effort (brood size) in an Arctic-breeding seabird, the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. This project will be carried out at Kongsfjorden (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard) which constitutes one of the northernmost (79° N) breeding site of the species. The main goal of this project is to understand the reasons of the very poor productivity of the species in this high-arctic area (only one chick/pair/year compared to 2-3 chicks/ pair/year in more temperate areas). To do so, we will manipulate brood size and concurrently study the metabolic cost of chick rearing and the metabolic cost of foraging.
Activities at the 
station
2004
During summer 2004, we will study, in collaboration with Norwegian researchers, the influence of parental effort on the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of an Arctic-breeding seabird, the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. This project will be carried out at Kongsfjorden (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard) which constitutes one the northernmost (79° N) breeding site of the species. To do so, we will experimentally manipulate the brood size by swapping chicks between nests shortly after hatching. Parent birds of the different experimental groups will be captured, weighted and a small blood sample (500 µL) will be taken for thyroid (BMR estimation) and corticosterone assays. Nests of the different groups will be observed during 2 weeks after what parent birds will be recaptured, and bled again for T3 and corticosterone assay. On an other group of birds (N=10), we will calibrate miniature activity recorders (N=10) by observing the activities (rest, brooding, flying, etc..) of the instrumented birds in the colony. Food samples (N=12) will be collected from parent birds during capture and recapture sessions.

2005
As in summer 2004, we will study, in collaboration with Norwegian researchers, the influence of parental effort on the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of an Arctic-breeding seabird, the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. During the 2004 breeding season, kittiwakes enjoyed very good environmental conditions (polar cod, the main prey was very abundant) and experienced a very good reproductive success (70% of the pairs managed to fledge chicks compared to 15% in 2003 and 0% in 2002). This project will be carried out at Kongsfjorden (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard), which constitutes one the northernmost (79° N) breeding site of the species. To do so, we will experimentally manipulate the brood size by swapping chicks between nests shortly after hatching. Parent birds of the different experimental groups will be captured, weighted and a small blood sample (500 µL) will be taken for thyroid (BMR estimation) and corticosterone assays. Nests of the different groups will be observed during 2 weeks after what parent birds will be recaptured, and bled again for T3 and corticosterone assay. In 2004 we successfully calibrated miniature activity recorders. A miniature activity recorder was successfully deplayed on 3 individuals for a total of 10 foraging trip. The method successfully recorded different activities: travel flight, prey searching, and resting at the sea-surface. In 2005, we will deploy 3 miniature activity recorders on 12 birds to quantify foraging effort. On an other group of birds (N=10), we will use miniature activity recorders (N=10, Daunt et al., 2002 Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.245 : 239-247, Tremblay et al. 2003, J. Exp. Biol. 206: 1929-1940) to measure at sea activities of the instrumented birds in the colony. At-sea energy expenditure will be estimated using the doubly labelled water technique. As for 2004, food samples (N=12) will be collected from parent birds during capture and recapture sessions.

2006 
As in summer 2005, we will study, in collaboration with Norwegian researchers, the influence of parental effort on the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of an Arctic-breeding seabird, the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. During the 2005 breeding season, kittiwakes enjoyed exceptional environmental conditions (polar cod, the main prey was very abundant) and experienced a very good reproductive success (70% of the pairs managed to fledge chicks compared to 15% in 2003 and 0% in 2002). This project will be carried out at Kongsfjorden (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard), which constitutes one the northernmost (79° N) breeding site of the species. To do so, we will experimentally manipulate the brood size by swapping chicks between nests shortly after hatching. Parent birds of the different experimental groups will be captured, weighed and a small blood sample (500 µL) will be taken for thyroid (BMR estimation) and corticosterone assays. Nests of the different groups will be observed during 2 weeks after which parent birds will be recaptured, to allow blood sampling again for T3 and corticosterone assays. In 2005, we successfully deployed 3 miniature activity recorders on 18 birds to quantify foraging effort. These miniature activity recorders (Daunt et al., 2002 Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.245 : 239-247, Tremblay et al. 2003, J. Exp. Biol. 206: 1929-1940) allowed us to measure at sea activities of the instrumented birds in the colony. The method successfully recorded different activities: travel flight, prey searching, and resting at the sea-surface. In 2006, we will deploy again the 3 activity recorders on 22 birds. In 2006, at-sea energy expenditure will be estimated for 18 birds using the doubly labelled water technique. As for 2005, food samples (N=12) will be collected from parent birds during capture and recapture sessions.  
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Project
RAP 332
Eider physioloy
Responsible 
scientist
Thierry Raclot
Centre d’Ecologie et Physiologie Energétiques (CEPE) ; Strasbourg 
General 
information
This programme will focus on energetic associated with reproduction during the incubation fast in long-lived birds. Notably, ecological, endocrinal and ecophysiological aspects will be considered in Common Eiders Somateria mollissima) and Barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), as well as the underlying physiological mechanisms during the breeding period. Using these models, we plan to better understand how is controlled the trade-off between reproductive effort and adult survival when body condition deteriorates. 
Activities at the 
station
2004
According to life-history trait theory, long-lived birds have to make trade-offs between the energy allocated to survival and reproduction. This reproductive cost could be paid in term of reduced immunocompetence. In this view, our study aims at highlighting the existence of such a reproductive cost in female common Eider. We will measure both components of immunity (humoral and cellular) of incubating females according to their initial clutch size and their breeding stage. To measure the cellular immune response of incubating females, we will perform phytohaemagglutinin skin tests while to measure the humoral immune response, we will perform blood measurements of immunoglobulin levels and immune challenges. 
Another aim of our programme is to study the physiological changes associated with the depletion of the body reserves in the female Eiders and the underlying mechanisms. We will check the factors controlling body fuel utilization during long-term fasting by measuring body reserves, energy expenditure, variations in plasma metabolites and hormones and gene regulation of key targets. To this end, we will manipulate the biodisponibility of free fatty acids and their contribution to energy expenditure in in vivo investigations. A special emphasis will be also put on the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological regulations of energy metabolism through avian uncoupling protein and thyroid hormones.

2005
According to life-history trait theory, long-lived birds have to make trade-offs between the energy allocated to survival and reproduction. This reproductive cost could be viewed in term of reduced immunocompetence. In this connection, our study aims at highlighting the existence of such a reproductive cost in female common Eider. We will measure both components of immunity (humoral and cellular) of incubating females according to their initial clutch size and their breeding stage. To measure the cellular immune response of incubating females, we will perform phytohaemagglutinin skin tests while to measure the humoral immune response, we will perform blood measurements of immunoglobulin levels and immune challenges. Moreover, we will try to establish a kinetic of immunocompetence changes in captive females. In addition to these measurements of the immune system response, we will evaluate the corticosterone and HSP levels in order to highlight a potential link between the endocrine and the immune states.

2006
According to life-history trait theory, long-lived birds have to make trade-offs between the energy allocated to survival and reproduction. This reproductive cost could be viewed in terms of reduced immunocompetence. Our study will aim at measuring the innate immunity of female common eiders according to initial clutch size and incubation stage. Moreover, we will try to compare the effects of incubating and fasting on the imnune system. To this end, we will manipulate female energy expenditure by implanting them with triiodothyronine (T3). We will measure the effects of exogenous T3 on both acquired immune components. 
When incubation is associated with fasting, nest desertion is supposed to be activated by an unknown refeeding signal when body condition becomes critically deteriorated. The concomitant rise in corticosterone levels has been suggested to be one of the triggering factors. Our previous data already gave evidence that the rise of circulating corticosterone alone does not seem sufficient to cause nest desertion, and raise the question of the exact role of this hormone in the control of the reproductive success and the incubation behavior. 
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Project
RAP 337
Gravity variation and vertical motion in polar regions- Constraints on post-glacial rebound and present-day ice melting
Responsible 
scientist
J. Hinderer
Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg
General 
information
Our research proposal consists in making measurements of the absolute gravity in 3 regions during the International Polar Year.
  1. Spitzberg: repetition of the measurement at Ny-Alesund to improve our knowledge of the long-term variation of the gravity and constrain the present-day ice melting.
  2. Iceland: repetition of the measurements at 5 sites, which belong to a permanent GPS network, to constrain the interaction between tectonics and deglaciation.
  3. Antarctica: repetition of the measurements at Terra Nova Bay (I), Mc Murdo (USA), and Dumont d'Urville (F); first measurements at Concordia (F-I), David (AUS), and Casey (AUS) to increase the number of AG measurements in Antarctica and obtain new geodetic constraints to the study of the past and present deglaciations.
Activities at the 
station
2007
The research proposal (2007-2010) is devoted to perform absolute gravity measurements with the two national equipments in the Arctic (Spitzberg, Iceland) and Antarctica. The scientific objectives are to determine long term temporal changes in gravity and to bring, with the help of precise positionning observations, new constraints on the problem of past and present deglaciations.
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Project
RAP 399
Chimerpol II
Responsible 
scientist
Christophe Ferrari
Maître de Conférences à l’Université Joseph Fourier (Grenoble I)
General 
information
The 2004-2007 scientific research program CHIMERPOL II consists in improving the results obtained during the CHIMERPOL I programme around three main ideas: 
  1. Understand physico-chemical processes of oxidation of elemental gaseous mercury in the atmosphere during Mercury Depletion Events (MDE) in Corbel, Svalbard from 2004 to 2007 with a continuous monitoring station for gaseous mercury and its speciation,
  2. Evaluate deposition and emission fluxes of mercury above the Arctic snow pack by a continuous monitoring of these fluxes in Corbel, Svalbard and in Station Nord, Greenland, from 2005 to 2007.
  3. Determine the Air-Snow-Firn-Ice transfer function for mercury and its speciation with a complete balance of mercury in the different compartments in Summit, Greenland from 2006 to 2007.
Activities at the 
station
2004
The programme of the 2004 year will be devoted to improving our knowledge on mercury atmospheric chemistry during MDE. We propose to organize a field campaign in Svalbard in March-April 2004 with our German colleagues from GKSS of Hamburg. The main objective of this spring study will be to discriminate the key parameters involved during MDE by a continuous monitoring of elemental gaseous mercury, ozone, particulate mercury and particles of different sizes. The origin of the MDE will be studied with a special attention given to the air mass back trajectories in order to discriminate the origin of the mercury depleted air masses. During this field campaign, the concentrations of mercury in the surface snow directly influenced by deposition from MDE will be measured in order to better establish the mass balance of this pollutant. 
In order to better understand the role of halogen species generated by the sea salts, we propose to participate from mid-july to mid-august an arctic oceanic cruise with the Polarstern, organized with our German colleagues. During this expedition, continuous monitoring of elemental gaseous mercury, ozone, particulate mercury and particles of different sizes will be done to verify if MDE are produced during this period and also to better understand the role of the halogenated species. 
This 2004 campaign (Ny-Ålesund and cruise in the Arctic ocean) will allow us to study in details MDE over a long period of time (2 months) and over a large spatial scale (see cruise of the Polarstern).

2005
The 2005 programme will be organised around three main ideas: (1) Study of atmospheric mercury chemistry in the atmosphere at Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard). The main question is too better understand the physical and chemical parameters that are involved in this chemistry and also to better understand the origin of this depleted air masses with the contribution of radionuclide measurement on aerosols.  One objective of that atmospheric part is to evaluate the net deposition flux over one season from these Mercury Depletion Events. (2) Understand the chemical and biological processes that are transforming Hg and its speciation in the snow itself so as to better understand the pathways of Hg introduction into polar ecosystems. Surface snow and deep snow samples will be collected for Hg determination and also bacteria counting and identification. Bacteria can transform Hg into organic mercury, the toxic form of Hg. (3) Study of the transfer function for Hg between atmosphere-snow-firn and ice by measuring Hg and its speciation both in the snow and in the air of snow. The 2005 campaign will focus on elemental gaseous mercury determination in the air of firn on the Kongsvegen glacier (Svalbard).

2007
The campaign 2007 will be devoted to the study of the contamination of the continuum atmosphere-snow-ecosystems from marine and fresh water environments. During spring, 2007 (from mid April to mid-June) mercury and its speciation will be measured in the atmosphere, in the snow, in the micro-organisms present in the snow as well as in the melting water during snow melt. This event of melting will be studied by field systems adapted to melt water collection so as to evaluate the mercury load introduced into the ecosystems once snow melts. Furthermore, the role of micro-organisms in the snow as a possible conentration system will be studied in order to point out the entrance door for mercury into the food chain. Monitoring of mercury in air, in snow, and in the ecosystems. A complete study will be done onto marine and fresh water ecosystems so as to link atmospheric mercury deposition onto snow surfaces and mercury concentration in fishes. We will continue to collect snow and firn samples from the Kongsvegen glacier so as to study past and recent changes in mercury deposition.


2008
The program is a mix of field and laboratory experiments through a large group of teams coming from various disciplines. We plan to: (i) Understand the origin of the contamination of the ecosystems by mercury from Arctic Regions by an holistic approach, by determining exactly the role of the spring atmospheric chemistry on the deposition of mercury onto the snow pack. (ii) Determine the behaviour of mercury in the snow during the spring up to the melting, and to understand the transfer of this pollutant to the ecosystems. The purpose of this program is to supply the data of fluxes between the various compartments and to understand the processes involved in the chemistry, the microbiology and the transfer to produce a biogeochemical model of contamination of these fragile ecosystems.

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Project
RAP 426
Arctaphid
Responsible 
scientist
Maurice Hullé
UMR BiO3P, Le Rheu cedex, France
General 
information
In a context of global change, arctic ecosystems are exposed to deep modifications not only of the biology and ecology of endemic species but also of the interactions they may have with an increasing number of introduced species. This project attempts to assess in Svalbard, the impacts of global changes on aphids. These phytophagous insects are particularly relevant organisms for studies on the effects of global warming and biological invasion because 1) of their extreme sensitivity to micro- and macro- changes due to their spectacular rate of increase and phenotypic plasticity and 2) of their colonizing capacity conferred by their parthenogenetic mode of reproduction and their dispersal potential
Activities at the 
station
2004
The objectives for the annual programme are three folds:
  1. to have a first assessment of the environmental factors that influence the most aphid population biology in Svalbard,
  2. to precise on site with our French and Norwegian colleagues specialized on plant ecology in Svalbard a joint programme on plant-aphid interactions and
  3. to initiate in the field the 3 years work programme.

The field work includes:

  1. Composition of aphid species in Svalbard : prospecting and identification
  2. Habitat characterization of aphid species and colonization rate
  3. Assessment of the relative importance of endemic and introduced species : elaboration of a sampling design for a temporal survey of aphid population dynamics over the whole growing season during the next two years
  4. First approach of population genetic structure of the endemic species Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum : several populations will be collected in geographically distant sites and genotyped in the lab. Between population differentiation and inbreeding coefficient will be assessed based on population structure analyses.
2005
The working programme for the ARCTAPHID project in 2005 will be first, to complete, in the laboratory, the morphological and genetic analyses of the aphid material collected in summer 2004 at both Longyearbyen and Ny- Ålesund surroundings and second, to realize a second campaign in summer 2005 in these two areas.
This campaign aims at:
  1. recording the dynamics of production of clonal and sexual forms of the endemic species Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum in sites located around Ny-Ålesund during the whole active part of the life-cycle (July-Mid August)
  2. sampling in collaboration with Prof. Ian Hodkinson (U. Liverpool) and the support of UNIS (Dr Liz Cooper) the second species, A. calvulus around Longyearbyen to examine the dynamic and genetic structure of its populations which are localized in Adventdalen only.
  3. prospecting for aphids nearby Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen to
    1. confirm the distribution and the relationships with their host-plants and
    2. to search for newly introduced aphid species.
2006
The working programme for 2006 aims at
  1. ascertaining the life-cycle of A. svalbardicum (2 or 3 generations? Environmental/genetic variation of this trait?),
  2. getting more insight into the spatial genetic structure at very fine scales and
  3. extending studies on the distribution of arctic aphid species to southern sites of Svalbard and continental Scandinavia.
     
     The last campaign (2005) allowed increasing knowledge on the dynamic and genetic components of aphid populations in high arctic environments. First, we found an even more simplified life-cycle for Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum than the one described in earlier studies, with only two generations, one being parthenogenetic and the other, sexual. Second, our genetic data showed that populations of A. svalbardicum can be highly differentiated even at short distances as a result of limited dispersal capacities in that species.
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Project
RAP 455
PRACEAL
Responsible 
scientist
P.Mayzaud
LOV - Observatoire Océanologique, BP. 28. 06230 Villefranche sur mer
General 
information
The ecosystem at NY-Alesund is particularly suited for Arctic studies on the impact of water masses mixing associated to climate shift and related biological responses. These changes are known to result in a decrease in energetic supply (lipid content) to higher trophic levels, either directly or indirectly via modification in life cycle interactions and prey predator relationships. The present programme is looking to the seasonal changes in the processes controlling life cycles and the rates of reproduction, nutrition and recruitment of the main pelagic predators as well as the zooplankton key prey organisms.
Activities at the 
station
2006
PRACEAL aims at four major objectives : 1) Define the population structure and dynamics of the zooplankton community with amajor emphasis on predators; 2) Establish the degree of inter specific competition for the food resources at the nutrition level; 3) Evaluate the magnitude and the impact of the changes in carnivorous species assemblages associated with the hydrodynamic mixing; 4) Measure the impact of theses changes on three physiological processes integrating the influence of all biotic and non biotic factors: preparation of winter survival (relationships with  the rate of lipid accumulation during the spring and summer season), reproduction and recruitment via the study of the links with lipid intake, egg maturation, production and survival (including endotrophic larval stages).  In 2006, the study will take place in summer (June-July) with sampling taking place at two stations on a bi-weekly basis. Hydrological features will be monitored within the first 200m, as well as the level of primary producers. Mesozooplankton (Calanus species) and larger zooplankton (predators) will be sampled simultaneously. Besides the analyses of  population structures, our key interest will be on the adaptive role of the lipid supply from the copepods preys. Impact of the food variability and introduced competition for food resources will be considered through experimental measure of  nutrition (ingestion, potential selectivity).  Large volume experiments will be used to evaluate the impact of interspecific competition between local and advected species. 

2007
The 2007 activities will be focused on a seasonal description of the population dynamics of the carnivorous species of zooplankton, their preys and on the definition of the key trophic interactions (predation). The main pathways of energy and lipid transfer will also be considered for the Kongsfjorden ecosystem. The field approach will be coupled with experimental determination of the predation characteristics (rates and selectivity). The 2007 field activities are a corner stone of the programme and will extend from April to September to include the early part of the spring plankton production and the fall initiation of overwintering conditions. Our approach during this survey will be essentially centered on the aims of objective 1 (definition of the life cycle patterns specific of the main constituents of the zooplankton community in Kongsfjorden) and 2 (define the predatory pressure and establish the degree of inter specific competition for the food resources at the nutrition level). However, the sampling will bring data related to objective 3.
1- Location and sampling frequency.
2 . Hydrology of the site.
3 - Population structure and dynamics of predatory macroplankton, and feeding processes.

2008
The PRACEAL programme for 2008 is focussed on a description of the spatial and seasonal variability of the population of planktonic predators and their potential preys at both small and meso scales in the Kongsfjorden and Krossfjorden interconnected ecosystems. The operations will take place from April to October and will be concerned with objective 1 (population dynamics of predators and preys) and 2 (interspecific competition). This synoptic budget type approach will yield functional 2D maps which will provide information on questions under objective 3.
The sampling will take place in Kongsforden and Krossfjorden using the continuous Optical Plankton Counter (OPC) fitted on a V-Fin. Four survey periods of 15 days will range from April to October are considered. Each survey period will comprise two cruises of 3 days for a spatial coverage of both fjords according to high resolution grids. Complementary sampling will be done for CTD/ fluorescence, OPC calibration with plankton hauls and particulate chlorophyll at different depths.
The size spectrum recorded by the OPC sensor ranges from 200 ´m to 3 cm and encompasses simultaneously both predators (>1cm) and potential preys (200-800 ´m). Our study will quantify the overall biomass and specific size spectra. In the case or the predatory hyperiids, the data will completed with an analysis of the size structure kinetics derived from the net hauls. The potential preys are dominated by the copepods which represent a size gradient, which can be well discriminated by the OPC sensor.
The definition of algorithms between size and physiological processes can be used to map these processes in 2 dimensions and will yield small and mesoscale synoptic vision of the variability of both predation pressure and supply of energy as zooplankton lipid.

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Project
RAP 457
IOANA
Responsible 
scientist
J.Savarino
LGGE/Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement
General 
information
The project IOANA proposes to better understand the intimate coupling between ozone mixing ratios and particulate nitrate isotopic characteristics. Ozone Depletion Events which occur in Arctic coastal locations shortly after sunrise are a subject of interest per se (scientifically challenging for two decades) but also provide a context in which ozone mixing ratios are highly variable, enabling to characterize the dynamic of correlation and process studies with a resolution of a day. This is a first step towards the use of the isotope tool  in reconstructions of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. This programme is a preparation of the IPY-OASIS project and propose to coodinate a set of collaborations than will be effective duing the International Polar Year.
Activities at the 
station
2006
We propose to organize two field campaigns in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, during February and April 2006, which would be strongly linked to the CHIMERPOL program lead by C. Ferrari (LGGE, RAP 399). These campaigns will focus on :

-    HiVol sampling on a daily basis for particulate nitrate isotope analysis collection on Whatman 41 filters
-    Ozone and Gaseous Elementary Mercury (GEM) monitoring (NILU and CHIMERPOL)
-    Monitoring of the isotopic content of nitrate contained in the surface layer of the seasonal snowpack.
-    Observations on the evolution of the physical and chemical characteristics of the seasonal snowpack
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Project
COP 304
Hydro Loven FLOWS
Responsible 
scientist
M.Griselin
ThéMA, CNRS UMR 6049
General 
information
The goal of this program (endorsed IPY) is to quantify liquid and solid fluxes from a typical polar hydro-system with a sensor web (both remote and in situ sensing) and water samplings. Space and time dynamics over a four years period (2006-2009) will also be monitored to improve our understanding of the system’s reactivity to contemporary climatic fluctuations (40 years). This project consists in setting up an environmental watch. This survey will help in apprehending processes differently and to display hydrologic and climatic data spatially in a context of accelerating glacial receding in Spitsberg.
Activities at the 
station
2006

In 2006, the field work will allow the different teams to prepare the next 3 years of observations. In 2006 we will essentially set up the monitoring devices for the survey of the basin hydrology for at least the next 3 years. This first campaign will occur from August to the end of September, ie the winter runoff depletion.
We will prepare all the sensor stations to be ready to run from Spring 2007 :

  • hydrology : 1 station (water pression sensor, Ph, T°C, electrical conductivity, turbidity), 1 automatic water sampling station and field measurements (gauging)
  • climatology : setting up of the weather automatic station and of the 20 air-temperature loggers (coming from Bioclim program funded by IPEV)
  • snow study : setting up of the 30 snow stakes and accurate-GPS measurement of the glacier surface at the end of summer 2006
  • remote sensing from the ground : test and data downloading of the 8 automatic photo stations. NB : these stations will be set up in Spring 2006 during a field operation funded by the University of Franche-Comté (Bonus research quality program).
2007
  • March-April (downloading of the data [meteo stations, T°C] ; starting of the sensors network [cameras] ; yearly measures [hydrology, snow cover]
  • July-August (establishment of the gauging curv (h/flow rate), hydrological measurements in situ, deltas investigation, geophysical investigations)
  • September-October (establishment of the gauging curv [h/flow rate], yearly measurements [glacier front positionning], hydrological measurements in situ, geophysical investigations.

2008
  • March-April: downloading of the data [meteo stations, T°C] ; starting of the sensors network [cameras] ; yearly measurements [hydrology, snow cover] ; geophysical investigation GPR ; rectification of DEM by differential GPS on the whole basin ; quantification of the volume of ice dynamics by tracing the glacier with a differential GPS set on a snow scooter ; winter glaciological balance by measurement on the ice-stakes and snow coring in the 30 places of ablation/accumulation spots.
  • July-August: establishment of the gauging curve (h versus flow rate relationship), hydrological measurements in situ, investigation of deltas, summer glaciological balance measurements)
  • September-October (establishment of the gauging curve [h/flow rate], yearly measurements [glacier front positioning], hydrological measurements in situ. At the moment, due to the new participation of a PhD student concerning snow and ice, we cannot define the field trips schedule. Anyway, we will have, as each year, to set up and to remove the instruments which cannot stay outdoor in winter.
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Project
COL 351
Bioclim
Responsible 
scientist
Daniel Joly
Laboratoire THEMA,  CNRS et Université de Franche Comté, Besançon 
General 
information
The Arctic plays a crucial role in global change because it responds sensitively to changes in the Earth System, and many of its responses to change have feedbacks that affect the Earth System. Much of the Arctic is undergoing pronounced warming, which has caused substantial changes in many components of the regional system, such as vegetation cover. 
Vegetation changes caused by climatic variations and/or land use may have large impacts on natural ecosystems. To address these issues, this project investigates vegetational response to climatic change. The project involves calibration of the relations between the range limits of plant species and climatic variables, relations that are then used: 1) to describe the now distribution of plants and temperature, 2) to « validate » vegetation and temperature modelisations and 3) to explore the potential influences of land cover changes on climate change. Two main areas will be prospected. 
The study area is situated arround the Kongsfjord in Svalbard. The investigation planning first involves modelling the distribution of plants and ground temperature and the spatial relationship between plants, defined in term of a Thermophily Index. Secondly we estimate the impacts of future climate on vegetation cover by focusing on the potential future ranges of plant species under a number of future climate scenarios. However, a global diagnosis is not sufficient to establish the consequences of this phenomenon. Hence, the impact of the climate change may vary according to the geographic position and the local conditions in the different environment contexts. Thus, it is important to know how this global change will modify the temperature distribution at meso scale. 
Activities at the 
station
2004
The aim of the research project is to evaluate the interactions which take place in the polar bio-geographical systems. The objective is to forecast the most probable modifications due to the global change. The project is divided into three parts: 1) interpolation of botanical data and themperatures, 2) statistical analysis of spatial co-variation of bio-indicators and temperatures, 3) evaluation of consequences due to the global change on polar ecosystems dynamic. 
In 2003-2004, the project aims first at validate the results achieved  during the 1999-2003 field researches and  second at extend the models on the whole Spitsbergen archipelago.
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Project
COL 351c
Ground Climatology
Responsible 
scientist
Daniel Joly
Laboratoire THEMA,  CNRS et Université de Franche Comté, Besançon 
General 
information
The program aims to measure the temperature over the whole Kongsforden area: North slope of Brogger Peninsula (from Kvadehuken to the Nilsen Fjellet), Kapp Guissez, Blomstrand, Dyrevikka, Ossian Sars. The network is composed by 50 temperature loggers (Hobo H8 pro Temp/external logger 64 Kb memory) wich sample the field at 10 above the ground. Temperatures are  recorded  once every 30 minutes (240 measurements per day) over each year from mid summer 2001. The program started in 2001 in relation with botanical researches.It is in project to continue the measurements for some years more.
The program aimsalso  to propose temperature maps useful for searchers working on natural sciences (botany, entomology, ornithology, etc…).  The maps result of modelisations made from field measurements with the interpolation method  presented in Joly and al., 2003. Temperature maps of two areas are available:
- The first one is a small area around Corbel station of which a DEM at high resolution was built (see program n°COL - 351b). Temperature measurements were recorded from the 12nd of July 1999  and  the 8th of August 1999 once every 6 minutes. On this basis, daily minimum and maximum were spatialized to built continuous thermic fields at fine gray resolution (2 by 2 meters). The temperature average for the whole considered period is also available;
- The second area corresponds to the Kongsjorden area. On the same way, temperature models at a 50 by 50 m resolution are built using the field measurements described in the program n°COL – 351b. At the moment, minimum  and maximum temperature average for June 2001 to 2003, July 2001 to 2002 and August 2001 to 2002.

JOLY D., NILSEN L., FURY R., ELVEBAKK A., BROSSARD T., 2003. Temperature interpolation at a large scale; test on a small area in Svalbard. International Journal of Climatology, vol. 23, pp. 1637-1654.
Activities at the 
station
2004

2005
Ground temperature measurements systems will run until July 2005, and then will be taken away from the field.

2006
Final stop in July 2006 : sensors will be re-installed into the programme 304
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Project
COL 437
Meteo - Particles
Responsible 
scientist
Franck Delbart
IPEV, Brest/France
General 
information
This  technological program aims to collect permanent informations on local  meteorology and aerosols  particles at Corbel Station. 
Activities at the 
station
2004
Particle counter installation and collecting data from meteo Station. Solar cells will be also installed at the station to power these systems. 
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Project
COL T2
Aerosols Corbel
Responsible 
scientist
F. Delbart
IPEV Brest
General 
information
This technological programs aims to collect permanent informations on aerosol particles at Corbel Station using a TSI 3010.
Activities at the 
station
2005
Permanent acquisition and data recording. Replacement of batteries.

2006
Continuous measurements. From April
June 2006 protected area around Corbel for scooters emissions study.

2007
Continuous measurements. Comparisons with CPC from Korea located at Corbel also.

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Project
COL T3
Meteo Corbel
Responsible 
scientist
F. Delbart
IPEV Brest
General 
information
This technological program aims to collect permanent informations on local meteorology at Corbel Station: temperature, humidity, light (using a pyranometer), wind speed and direction. A Campbell meteorological station runs since spring 2004.
Activities at the 
station
2005
Permanent acquisition and data collection. Replacement of batteries.

2006
Continuous measurements. From April to June 2006. New meteorological station set up on Austre Loven Breen.

2007
Permanent acquisitions of the parameters for both stations.
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Project
COP 400
Geomorphoclim
Responsible 
scientist
Denis Mercier 
Université Paris IV – Sorbonne, Paris
General 
information
The aim is a better understanding of the impact of contemporary climatic change (posterior to Little Ice Age) on plant dynamics and the morphodynamic processes active at the glacial margins in polar environments. The selected research field is constituted of the Brøgger Peninsula, where erosion assessments will be evaluated for various processes (frost weathering, runoff, biological weathering, …).
Activities at the 
station
2004
In 2004, we hope to continue, with more precisions, and comparisons, our field research started in 2002. First, we want to produce cartography of plant colonisation and field erosion with very precise scale using GPS and aerial photography. We selected field areas, like Engelsbukta, because this section gives us till deposits and Holocene marine shorelines. So we have a chronological sequence to compare rates of plant colonisation and erosion. We have good results for the last century and we hope to compare with oldest deposits. Secondly, in 2004, we hope to have two automatic gauging stations to quantify sediment transport (discharge, dissolved and solid sediments) of Loven East basin. On the other hand, we continue our investigation about the third goal, rates of erosion of cold processes and weathering. We use Grant Squirell 1022 to have very precise thermic datas like in 2002 for erratic limestone. We use also a Schmidt hammer to know rates of weathering on slope that know paraglacial evolution since the end of glacial period. 
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Project
COP 436
Validsite
Responsible 
scientist
Franck Delbart
IPEV, Brest/France
General 
information
This technological program aims to get a better view of the Corbel site quality for atmospheric chemistry. Nox and SO2 samplers are deployed on 16 places on a 4  km² area around the Station (79°N, Svalbard), protected from snowscooters activity. The influence of Ny-Ålesund village is also studied. 
Activities at the 
station
2004
Poles installation and samplers deployment on the 16 stations; analysis will be made by CNR
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Project
COP 442
Cryoclim
Responsible 
scientist
B. Van Vliet Lanoe
Université Sciences et Technologies de Lille
General 
information
Analysis of cryosoils, pattern ground development and aeolian activity since 1982, especially for the 1994-2005 period : the aim is  the evaluation of the impact of climate modification during  the latest  XXst century  in High Atlantic Arctic. Evolution of the plant cover (albedo), permafrost and thermal cracking (ice wedges) will also be analysed.  This work intends to understand the direct impact of a temperature rise and mostly of the insolation on the global evolution of an environment in cooling untill 1990. The impact of ice content on the TL signal will also be analyzed.
Activities  
station
2005
Measurements like explained in the preface.
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Project
RAP 1060
Dynamics of the glacio-marine sediments on the southern Kongsfjorden shore (Spitsbergen)
Responsible 
scientist
J. Deloffre
Université de Rouen
General 
information
The aim of the programme is to understand and quantify terrestrial particle transfer to selected parts of the southern Kongsfjorden shore and to identify local and regional littoral sediment dynamics. In order to study space and time dynamics of sediment transport a three years period is proposed. This work is based on continuous high-resolution and high-frequency measurements in order to study processes and controlling parameters that governs sediment dynamics in shallow waters (0-30m) of the Kongsfjorden bay (Svalbard). This programme would complete the work achieved by the Kiel, Bremen and Besançon Universities.
Activities at the 
station
2007
The year 2007 will be dedicated to the sedimentary facies identification (type of sediment) in the shallow waters (0-30m) in the Kongsfjorden bay. The studied area is located between the Loven east glacier and the 'Brandalpynten'. The covered zone corresponds to the studied zone of the University of Besançon (M. Griselin, COP 304) and the University of Kiel/Bremen (D. Dethleff, K. Bischof, KOP 99). This work would permit to study the distribution of the Loven east sediment in the bay, completing the measurements achieved on the glacier dynamics (Hydro-Loven programme, COP 304). This facies identification would also permit to increase our knowledge on the macro-algae distribution and the relations between sedimentary facies and macro-algae development (Unviersities of Kiel and Bremen, KOP 99). The identification of the heterogeneous facies in the Kongsfjorden would be achieved by bottom sediment sampling (Eckmann Binge) in order to know the bottom sediment distribution. The predicted results are maps of the distribution of (i) the type of sediment and (ii) the macro-algae.

The second objective during the summer 2007 campaign will be to deploy altimeter and OBS in the Kolhamnlaguna bay, and to begin the long term (12 months), high-resolution (minute) and high-frequency measurement of the sedimentary parameters in this area.

2007
During the first fieldwork of the SPITZBAY program we sampled 150 bottom sediment (0-30 m depth) on the southern bank of the Kongsfjorden (from Brandalpunten to Austre Lovenbreen). An altimeter-turbidimeter has been settled at a 4m depth near the Bayelva outlet. The acquired data will be analysed by a 2nd year research Master student during the next year. Two summer campaigns are planned during 2008.The first one (June 2008) will target to complete the bottom sediment map (i.e. analysed binge samples) using imagery analyses either by ROV (IPEV) or Side-scan (UMR CNRS 6143). The second objective will be to settle a second device (altimeter-turbidimeter) on the Adventfjorden (Longyearbyen) in collaboration with UNIS. The second fieldwork (August/September 2008) will study the plume and the water mixing at the Bayelva and Goule outlet (linked to the HYDROLOVEN FLOWS program). For this part, sampling using sediment trap, CTD profiles (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) and current measurement will be achieved at the same time under neap and spring tide conditions. The frame deployed on the Bayelva outlet will be removed and the instruments will be settled on the Goule's outlet. Finally the frame settled on the Adventfjorden will be removed.

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Project
RAP 1157
AEROsols of Biogenic origin in Polar region of Arctic AEROBIPOLAR
Responsible 
scientist
Jean Sciare (LSCE, UMR 1572, Gif/Yvette)
Université de Rouen
General 
informations
Although long-range transport of continental (anthropogenic) aerosols have been extensively studied in the Arctic region, still little is known on biogenic marine aerosols in this region which already undergoes major climatic changes.

It is proposed here to investigate the role of marine biogenic aerosols on the levels of condensation nuclei (CN) and could condensation nuclei (CCN) in the Arctic region (Spitzbergs) and over a limited period of the year (1 month), when the marine productivity is at its maximum. Field and scientific expertise are widely inspired from similar on-going studies on the DMS cycle and biogenic marine organic aerosol studies at the high latitudes of the southern hemisphere (AEROTRACE and CESOA IPEV-funded programs).

Activities at the 
station
2008
A close collaboration with several partners (AWI + others) and implementation at different site infrastructures (including Zeppelin station) is proposed here in order to achieve the main scientific objectives of the project. Although limited in time and scale, the exploratory measurements proposed here should be enough to get some conclusive ideas on the role of primary & secondary biogenic aerosol sources in the region. This exploratory experiment is also considered as a unique opportunity to initiate in the field further scientific collaboration for long-term survey of biogenic marine aerosols in the Arctic (IPEV proposal to be submitted in 2008 or 2009).
To our best knowledge, very little attention has been received on the role of biogenic marine aerosols (organics and/or from the oxidation of DMS) in the Arctic (Spitzbergs) region. Also, no strategy has been established so far to provide long-term measurements of these aerosols in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, which already undergo major climatic changes.
It is proposed here to investigate the role of marine biogenic aerosols on the levels of condensation nuclei (CN) and could condensation nuclei (CCN), in the Arctic region (Spitzbergs), over a limited period of the year (1 month), when the marine productivity is at its maximum. Although limited in time and scale, the exploratory measurements proposed here should be enough to get some conclusive ideas on the role of primary & secondary biogenic aerosol sources in the region. This exploratory field study will also give us the opportunity to initiate further collaborative studies on long-term measurements of biogenic marine aerosols (IPEV proposal to be submitted in 2008 or 2009).
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